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Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://hdl.handle.net/2440/73430

Type: Journal article
Title: Ecstasy and suicide
Author: Fernando, T.
Gilbert, J.
Carroll, C.
Byard, R.
Citation: Journal of Forensic Sciences, 2012; 57(4):1137-1139
Publisher: Amer Soc Testing Materials
Issue Date: 2012
ISSN: 0022-1198
1556-4029
Statement of
Responsibility: 
Tarini Fernando, John D. Gilbert, Christine M. Carroll, and Roger W. Byard
Abstract: Deaths due to the ring-derivative amphetamines are not common and are usually accidental involving dehydration and hyperthermia. Suicides from 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) and related ring-derivative amphetamines overdose are rare. A 15-year-old female who had a history of depression and previous suicide attempts was found dead with a suicide note. Toxicology demonstrated lethal serum concentrations of MDMA (9.3 mg/L), with 34 mg/kg of MDMA in the liver, 2.4 mg/L in the urine, and 530 mg/kg in the stomach. The cause of death was MDMA toxicity, the manner suicide. While MDMA may be detected in victims in other drug-related or traumatic deaths, it is only rarely used in isolation in suicide, with a predominance in the 21- to 25-year-old range. Despite the rarity of such events, the possibility of a nonaccidental manner of death should be considered when high levels of MDMA and associated amphetamines are found at autopsy.
Keywords: forensic science; ecstasy; MDMA; death; suicide; hyperthermia
Rights: © 2012 American Academy of Forensic Sciences
RMID: 0020120566
DOI: 10.1111/j.1556-4029.2012.02107.x
Appears in Collections:Pathology publications
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