Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://hdl.handle.net/2440/100606
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Type: Journal article
Title: Fruit calcium: transport and physiology
Author: Hocking, B.
Tyerman, S.
Burton, R.
Gilliham, M.
Citation: Frontiers in Plant Science, 2016; 7(APR2016):569-1-569-17
Publisher: Frontiers Media
Issue Date: 2016
ISSN: 1664-462X
1664-462X
Statement of
Responsibility: 
Bradleigh Hocking, Stephen D. Tyerman, Rachel A. Burton and Matthew Gilliham
Abstract: Calcium has well-documented roles in plant signaling, water relations and cell wall interactions. Significant research into how calcium impacts these individual processes in various tissues has been carried out; however, the influence of calcium on fruit ripening has not been thoroughly explored. Here, we review the current state of knowledge on how calcium may impact the development, physical traits and disease susceptibility of fruit through facilitating developmental and stress response signaling, stabilizing membranes, influencing water relations and modifying cell wall properties through cross-linking of de-esterified pectins. We explore the involvement of calcium in hormone signaling integral to the physiological mechanisms behind common disorders that have been associated with fruit calcium deficiency (e.g., blossom end rot in tomatoes or bitter pit in apples). This review works toward an improved understanding of how the many roles of calcium interact to influence fruit ripening, and proposes future research directions to fill knowledge gaps. Specifically, we focus mostly on grapes and present a model that integrates existing knowledge around these various functions of calcium in fruit, which provides a basis for understanding the physiological impacts of sub-optimal calcium nutrition in grapes. Calcium accumulation and distribution in fruit is shown to be highly dependent on water delivery and cell wall interactions in the apoplasm. Localized calcium deficiencies observed in particular species or varieties can result from differences in xylem morphology, fruit water relations and pectin composition, and can cause leaky membranes, irregular cell wall softening, impaired hormonal signaling and aberrant fruit development. We propose that the role of apoplasmic calcium-pectin crosslinking, particularly in the xylem, is an understudied area that may have a key influence on fruit water relations. Furthermore, we believe that improved knowledge of the calcium-regulated signaling pathways that control ripening would assist in addressing calcium deficiency disorders and improving fruit pathogen resistance.
Keywords: calcium; fruit ripening; xylem; pectin; water
Description: Published: 29 April 2016
Rights: Copyright © 2016 Hocking, Tyerman, Burton and Gilliham. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) or licensor are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.
RMID: 0030047594
DOI: 10.3389/fpls.2016.00569
Grant ID: http://purl.org/au-research/grants/arc/CE140100008
http://purl.org/au-research/grants/arc/CE1101007
http://purl.org/au-research/grants/arc/FT130100709
Appears in Collections:Agriculture, Food and Wine publications

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