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|Title:||Effect of cryopreservation and post-cryopreservation somatic embryogenesis on the epigenetic fidelity of cocoa (Theobroma cacao L.)|
Rodriguez Lopez, C.
|Citation:||PLoS One, 2016; 11(7):e0158857-1-e0158857-13|
|Publisher:||Public Library of Science|
|Raphael Adu-Gyamfi, Andy Wetten, Carlos Marcelino Rodríguez López|
|Abstract:||While cocoa plants regenerated from cryopreserved somatic embryos can demonstrate high levels of phenotypic variability, little is known about the sources of the observed variability. Previous studies have shown that the encapsulation-dehydration cryopreservation methodology imposes no significant extra mutational load since embryos carrying high levels of genetic variability are selected against during protracted culture. Also, the use of secondary rather than primary somatic embryos has been shown to further reduce the incidence of genetic somaclonal variation. Here, the effect of in vitro conservation, cryopreservation and post-cryopreservation generation of somatic embryos on the appearance of epigenetic somaclonal variation were comparatively assessed. To achieve this we compared the epigenetic profiles, generated using Methylation Sensitive Amplified Polymorphisms, of leaves collected from the ortet tree and from cocoa somatic embryos derived from three in vitro conditions: somatic embryos, somatic embryos cryopreserved in liquid nitrogen and somatic embryos generated from cryoproserved somatic embryos. Somatic embryos accumulated epigenetic changes but these were less extensive than in those regenerated after storage in LN. Furthermore, the passage of cryopreserved embryos through another embryogenic stage led to further increase in variation. Interestingly, this detected variability appears to be in some measure reversible. The outcome of this study indicates that the cryopreservation induced phenotypic variability could be, at least partially, due to DNA methylation changes. Key message: Phenotypic variability observed in cryostored cocoa somatic-embryos is epigenetic in nature. This variability is partially reversible, not stochastic in nature but a directed response to the in-vitro culture and cryopreservation.|
|Keywords:||Cacao; Seeds; Cryopreservation; DNA Methylation; Epigenesis, Genetic; Genetic Variation; Plant Somatic Embryogenesis Techniques|
|Rights:||© 2016 Adu-Gyamfi et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.|
|Appears in Collections:||Agriculture, Food and Wine publications|
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