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Type: Journal article
Title: Whole genome comparison reveals high levels of inbreeding and strain redundancy across the spectrum of commercial wine strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae
Author: Borneman, A.
Forgan, A.
Kolouchova, R.
Fraser, J.
Schmidt, S.
Citation: G3: Genes, Genomes, Genetics, 2016; 6(4):957-971
Publisher: Genetics Society America
Issue Date: 2016
ISSN: 2160-1836
Statement of
Anthony R. Borneman, Angus H. Forgan, Radka Kolouchova, James A. Fraser, and Simon A. Schmidt
Abstract: Humans have been consuming wines for more than 7000 yr . For most of this time, fermentations were presumably performed by strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae that naturally found their way into the fermenting must . In contrast, most commercial wines are now produced by inoculation with pure yeast monocultures, ensuring consistent, reliable and reproducible fermentations, and there are now hundreds of these yeast starter cultures commercially available. In order to thoroughly investigate the genetic diversity that has been captured by over 50 yr of commercial wine yeast development and domestication, whole genome sequencing has been performed on 212 strains of S. cerevisiae, including 119 commercial wine and brewing starter strains, and wine isolates from across seven decades. Comparative genomic analysis indicates that, despite their large numbers, commercial strains, and wine strains in general, are extremely similar genetically, possessing all of the hallmarks of a population bottle-neck, and high levels of inbreeding. In addition, many commercial strains from multiple suppliers are nearly genetically identical, suggesting that the limits of effective genetic variation within this genetically narrow group may be approaching saturation.
Keywords: genome sequencing; industrial yeast; comparative genomics; fermentation
Description: Published Early Online February 11, 2016.
Rights: Copyright © 2016 Borneman et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License ( licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
DOI: 10.1534/g3.115.025692
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