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Type: Journal article
Title: A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled pilot trial to determine the efficacy and safety of ibudilast, a potential glial attenuator, in chronic migraine
Author: Kwok, Y.
Swift, J.
Gazerani, P.
Rolan, P.
Citation: Journal of Pain Research, 2016; 9:899-907
Publisher: Dove Medical Press
Issue Date: 2016
ISSN: 1178-7090
Statement of
Yuen H Kwok, James E Swift, Parisa Gazerani, Paul Rolan
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Chronic migraine (CM) is problematic, and there are few effective treatments. Recently, it has been hypothesized that glial activation may be a contributor to migraine; therefore, this study investigated whether the potential glial inhibitor, ibudilast, could attenuate CM. METHODS: The study was of double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, two-period crossover design. Participants were randomized to receive either ibudilast (40 mg twice daily) or placebo treatment for 8 weeks. Subsequently, the participants underwent a 4-week washout period followed by a second 8-week treatment block with the alternative treatment. CM participants completed a headache diary 4 weeks before randomization throughout both treatment periods and 4 weeks after treatment. Questionnaires assessing quality of life and cutaneous allodynia were collected on eight occasions throughout the study. RESULTS: A total of 33 participants were randomized, and 14 participants completed the study. Ibudilast was generally well tolerated with mild, transient adverse events, principally nausea. Eight weeks of ibudilast treatment did not reduce the frequency of moderate to severe headache or of secondary outcome measures such as headache index, intake of symptomatic medications, quality of life or change in cutaneous allodynia. CONCLUSION: Using the current regimen, ibudilast does not improve migraine with CM participants.
Keywords: chronic migraine
immune system
Rights: © 2016 Kwok et al. This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited. The full terms of this license are available at php and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License ( By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed. For permission for commercial use of this work, please see paragraphs 4.2 and 5 of our Terms (
DOI: 10.2147/JPR.S116968
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