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Type: Journal article
Title: The effect of Stokes number on particle velocity and concentration distributions in a well-characterised, turbulent, co-flowing two-phase jet
Author: Lau, T.
Nathan, G.
Citation: Journal of Fluid Mechanics, 2016; 809:72-110
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
Issue Date: 2016
ISSN: 0022-1120
Statement of
Timothy C. W. Lau and Graham J. Nathan
Abstract: Simultaneous measurements of particle velocity and concentration (number density) in a series of mono-disperse, two-phase turbulent jets issuing from a long, round pipe into a low velocity co-flow were performed using planar nephelometry and digital particle image velocimetry. The exit Stokes number, SkD, was systematically varied over two orders of magnitude between 0.3 and 22.4, while the Reynolds number was maintained in the turbulent regime (10000⩽ReD⩽40000). The mass loading was fixed at ϕ=0.4, resulting in a flow that is in the two-way coupling regime. The results show that, in contrast to all previous work where a single Stokes number has been used to characterise fluid–particle interactions, the characteristic Stokes number in the axial direction is lower than that for the radial direction. This is attributed to the significantly greater length scales in the axial motions than in the radial ones. It further leads to a preferential response of particles to gas-phase axial velocity fluctuations, u′p, over radial velocity fluctuations, v′p. This, in turn, leads to high levels of anisotropy in the particle-phase velocity fluctuations, u′p/v′p>1, throughout the jet, with u′p/v′p increasing as SkD is increased. The results also show that the region within the first few diameters of the exit plane is characterised by a process of particle reorganisation, resulting in significant particle migration to the jet axis for SkD⩽2.8 and away from the axis for SkD⩾5.6. This migration, together with particle deceleration along the axis, causes local humps in the centreline concentration whose value can even exceed those at the exit plane.
Keywords: jets; multiphase and particle-laden flows; particle/fluid flow
Description: Published online: 09 November 2016
Rights: © Cambridge University Press 2016
DOI: 10.1017/jfm.2016.666
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