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Type: Journal article
Title: Work function engineering of graphene
Author: Garg, R.
Dutta, N.
Choudhury, N.
Citation: Nanomaterials, 2014; 4(2):267-300
Publisher: Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Issue Date: 2014
ISSN: 2079-4991
Statement of
Rajni Garg, Naba K. Dutta and Namita Roy Choudhury
Abstract: Graphene is a two dimensional one atom thick allotrope of carbon that displays unusual crystal structure, electronic characteristics, charge transport behavior, optical clarity, physical & mechanical properties, thermal conductivity and much more that is yet to be discovered. Consequently, it has generated unprecedented excitement in the scientific community; and is of great interest to wide ranging industries including semiconductor, optoelectronics and printed electronics. Graphene is considered to be a next-generation conducting material with a remarkable band-gap structure, and has the potential to replace traditional electrode materials in optoelectronic devices. It has also been identified as one of the most promising materials for post-silicon electronics. For many such applications, modulation of the electrical and optical properties, together with tuning the band gap and the resulting work function of zero band gap graphene are critical in achieving the desired properties and outcome. In understanding the importance, a number of strategies including various functionalization, doping and hybridization have recently been identified and explored to successfully alter the work function of graphene. In this review we primarily highlight the different ways of surface modification, which have been used to specifically modify the band gap of graphene and its work function. This article focuses on the most recent perspectives, current trends and gives some indication of future challenges and possibilities.
Keywords: Graphene; graphene oxide (GO); reduced GO (RGO); functionality; bandgap; work function (WF); high occupied molecular orbital (HOMO); lower occupied molecular orbital (LUMO); hole transporting layer (HTL)
Rights: © 2014 by the authors; licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution license (
DOI: 10.3390/nano4020267
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