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dc.contributor.authorTolppanen, A.en
dc.contributor.authorSayers, A.en
dc.contributor.authorFraser, W.en
dc.contributor.authorLewis, G.en
dc.contributor.authorZammit, S.en
dc.contributor.authorLawlor, D.en
dc.identifier.citationJournal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 2012; 53(7):757-766en
dc.description.abstractBackground: Depression in adolescence is common and early onset predicts worse outcome in adulthood. Studies in adults have suggested a link between higher total 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] concentrations and lower risk of depression. Objectives: To investigate (a) the association between serum 25(OH)D₂ and 25(OH)D₃ concentrations and depressive symptoms in children, and (b) whether the associations of 25(OH)D₂ and 25(OH)D₃ are different from, and independent of, each other. Methods: Prospective cohort study with serum 25(OH)D₂ and 25(OH)D₃ concentrations measured at mean age of 9.8 years and depressive symptoms assessed with the Mood and Feelings Questionnaire by a trained interviewer at the mean ages of 10.6 years (n=2,759) and 13.8 years (n=2,752). Results: Higher concentrations of 25(OH)D₃ assessed at mean age 9.8 years were associated with lower levels of depressive symptoms at age 13.8 years [adjusted risk ratio (RR; 95% confidence interval (CI)): 0.90 (0.86-0.95)], but not at age 10.6 years [adjusted RR (95% CI): 0.98 (0.93-1.03)] and with increased odds of decreasing symptoms between age 10.6 and 13.8 years [adjusted RR (95% CI): 1.08 (1.01-1.16)]. Serum 25(OH)D₂ concentrations were not associated with depressive symptoms. Conclusions: This is the first study in children to suggest that the association between 25(OH)D₃ concentrations and depression emerges in childhood. The association is independent of a wide range of potential confounding factors, and appears to be stronger with greater time separation between assessment of 25(OH)D₃ and assessment of depressive symptoms. Confirmation of our findings in large prospective studies and trials would be valuable.en
dc.description.statementofresponsibilityAnna-Maija Tolppanen, Adrian Sayers, William D. Fraser, Glyn Lewis, Stanley Zammit and Debbie A. Lawloren
dc.rights© 2011 The Authors. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry © 2011 Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health. Published by Blackwell Publishing, 9600 Garsington Road, Oxford OX4 2DQ, UK and 350 Main St, Malden, MA 02148, USAen
dc.subject25-Hydroxyvitamin D; calcium; parathyroid hormone; child; depression; ALSPACen
dc.titleThe association of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D₃ and D₂ with depressive symptoms in childhood - a prospective cohort studyen
dc.typeJournal articleen
pubs.library.collectionMedicine publicationsen
dc.identifier.orcidLawlor, D. [0000-0002-6793-2262]en
Appears in Collections:Medicine publications

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