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Type: Journal article
Title: Persistence of low pathogenic influenza A virus in water: a systematic review and quantitative meta-analysis
Author: Dalziel, A.
Delean, S.
Heinrich, S.
Cassey, P.
Citation: PLoS One, 2016; 11(10):e0161929-1-e0161929-24
Publisher: Public Library Science
Issue Date: 2016
ISSN: 1932-6203
Editor: Waldenström, J.
Statement of
Antonia E. Dalziel, Steven Delean, Sarah Heinrich, Phillip Cassey
Abstract: Avian influenza viruses are able to persist in the environment, in-between the transmission of the virus among its natural hosts. Quantifying the environmental factors that affect the persistence of avian influenza virus is important for influencing our ability to predict future outbreaks and target surveillance and control methods. We conducted a systematic review and quantitative meta-analysis of the environmental factors that affect the decay of low pathogenic avian influenza virus (LPAIV) in water. Abiotic factors affecting the persistence of LPAIV have been investigated for nearly 40 years, yet published data was produced by only 26 quantitative studies. These studies have been conducted by a small number of principal authors (n = 17) and have investigated a narrow range of environmental conditions, all of which were based in laboratories with limited reflection of natural conditions. The use of quantitative meta-analytic techniques provided the opportunity to assess persistence across a greater range of conditions than each individual study can achieve, through the estimation of mean effect-sizes and relationships among multiple variables. Temperature was the most influential variable, for both the strength and magnitude of the effect-size. Moderator variables explained a large proportion of the heterogeneity among effect-sizes. Salinity and pH were important factors, although future work is required to broaden the range of abiotic factors examined, as well as including further diurnal variation and greater environmental realism generally. We were unable to extract a quantitative effect-size estimate for approximately half (50.4%) of the reported experimental outcomes and we strongly recommend a minimum set of quantitative reporting to be included in all studies, which will allow robust assimilation and analysis of future findings. In addition we suggest possible means of increasing the applicability of future studies to the natural environment, and evaluating the biological content of natural waterbodies.
Keywords: Salinity; viral persistence and latency; filter sterilization; meta-analysis; birds; influenza a virus; influenza; avian influenza
Rights: Copyright: © 2016 Dalziel et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0161929
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Environment Institute publications

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