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dc.contributor.authorLee, D.-
dc.contributor.authorLloyd, N.-
dc.contributor.authorPretorius, I.-
dc.contributor.authorBorneman, A.-
dc.identifier.citationMicrobial Cell Factories, 2016; 15(1):49-1-49-7-
dc.description.abstractBackground: Raspberry ketone is the primary aroma compound found in raspberries and naturally derived raspberry ketone is a valuable flavoring agent. The economic incentives for the production of raspberry ketone, combined with the very poor yields from plant tissue, therefore make this compound an excellent target for heterologous production in synthetically engineered microbial strains. Methods: A de novo pathway for the production of raspberry ketone was assembled using four heterologous genes, encoding phenylalanine/tyrosine ammonia lyase, cinnamate-4-hydroxlase, coumarate-CoA ligase and benzalacetone synthase, in an industrial strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Synthetic protein fusions were also explored as a means of increasing yields of the final product. Results: The highest raspberry ketone concentration achieved in minimal media exceeded 7.5 mg/L when strains were fed with 3 mM p-coumaric acid; or 2.8 mg/L for complete de novo synthesis, both of which utilized a coumarate-CoA ligase, benzalacetone synthase synthetic fusion protein that increased yields over fivefold compared to the native enzymes. In addition, this strain was shown to be able to produce significant amounts of raspberry ketone in wine, with a raspberry ketone titer of 3.5 mg/L achieved after aerobic fermentation of Chardonnay juice or 0.68 mg/L under anaerobic winemaking conditions. Conclusions: We have shown that it is possible to produce sensorially-relevant quantities of raspberry ketone in an industrial heterologous host. This paves the way for further pathway optimization to provide an economical alternative to raspberry ketone derived from plant sources.-
dc.description.statementofresponsibilityDanna Lee, Natoiya D.R. Lloyd, Isak S. Pretorius and Anthony R. Borneman-
dc.publisherBioMed Central-
dc.rights© 2016 Lee et al. This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (http://, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver ( zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated.-
dc.subjectPhenylpropanoid; raspberry ketone; synthetic engineering; wine yeast-
dc.titleHeterologous production of raspberry ketone in the wine yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae via pathway engineering and synthetic enzyme fusion-
dc.typeJournal article-
dc.identifier.orcidBorneman, A. [0000-0001-8491-7235]-
Appears in Collections:Agriculture, Food and Wine publications
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