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Type: Theses
Title: The effect of dairy on insulin sensitivity
Author: Peters, Jordan Linley
Issue Date: 2017
School/Discipline: School of Medicine
Abstract: Introduction: Insulin resistance is a condition of impaired sensitivity of tissues for insulin. Insulin sensitivity may be modified by modifying diet, which could include increasing dairy consumption. The literature is divided on dairy’s effectiveness at reducing the risk of type 2 diabetes. Dairy may also be linked to cardiovascular health, and two common measures of vascular health are pulse wave velocity and augmentation index which examine the stiffness of arteries. Objective: To recruit participants at risk of developing type II diabetes as well as healthy participants for a 10-week randomised crossover trial to determine if increased dairy intake improves insulin sensitivity and cardiovascular health. Methods: 28 Participants underwent a ten-week crossover study and were required to eat a high (4-6 serves/day) and low dairy diet (0-0.5 serves/day) for four weeks each, with a two-week break in-between. A Low Dose Insulin and Glucose Infusion test (LDIGIT), a hyperglycaemic clamp, pulse wave velocity and augmentation index test were performed at the end of each four-week period. Results: 28 people completed the study. No significant differences in insulin sensitivity were detected (10.2 ml kg⁻¹min⁻¹/pmol/Lx10⁻³ in the high dairy diet, and 9.4 x10⁻³ in the low dairy diet for the LDIGIT (P=0.7)). The hyperglycaemic clamp test had an insulin sensitivity index of 40.4 x 10⁻³ and 34.2 x 10⁻³ ml kg⁻¹min⁻¹/pmol/L for the high and low dairy diets respectively (P=0.6). Augmentation index was 6.7 ± 2.6% for the high dairy diet, and 6.4 ± 2.5% for the low dairy diet. No significant differences were found between diets (P=0.9). Pulse wave velocity had a median 6.1 and 6.5 m/s in high and low dairy diets respectively (P=0.9). Average glucose concentrations in the LDIGIT were 5.7 and 5.6 mmol/L in the high and low dairy diets respectively (P = 0.9). The LDIGIT steady state glucose (120-150 minutes) had concentrations of 5.4 and 5.3 mmol/L (P=0.7). Fasting insulin LDIGIT values were 10.6 and 11.5 pmol/L in the high and low dairy values (P=0.52). Steady state insulin values for the LDIGIT were 44.3 and 44.8 pmol/L in respectively (P=0.63). Fasting clamp insulin values were 9.7 and 9.7 pmol/L (P= 0.6) respectively. Steady state values were 107.3 and 116.2 pmol/L (P=0.5) Conclusion: No significant differences were detected for insulin sensitivity or cardiovascular health markers. For the hyperglycaemic clamp, in order for the 10% difference observed here to be statistically significant a sample size of 113 would be needed.
Advisor: Clifton, Peter Marshall
Torpy, David James
Keogh, Jennifer Beatrice
Dissertation Note: Thesis (M.Phil.) -- University of Adelaide, Adelaide Medical School, 2017.
Keywords: dairy
insulin sensitivity
insulin resistance
type II diabetes
Provenance: This electronic version is made publicly available by the University of Adelaide in accordance with its open access policy for student theses. Copyright in this thesis remains with the author. This thesis may incorporate third party material which has been used by the author pursuant to Fair Dealing exceptions. If you are the owner of any included third party copyright material you wish to be removed from this electronic version, please complete the take down form located at:
DOI: 10.4225/55/592e59a09b82d
Appears in Collections:Research Theses

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