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dc.contributor.authorRappaport, A.en
dc.contributor.authorWhitfield, K.en
dc.contributor.authorChapman, G.en
dc.contributor.authorYada, R.en
dc.contributor.authorKheang, K.en
dc.contributor.authorLouise, J.en
dc.contributor.authorSummerlee, A.en
dc.contributor.authorArmstrong, G.en
dc.contributor.authorGreen, T.en
dc.identifier.citationAmerican Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 2017; 106(2):667-674en
dc.descriptionFirst published online June 14, 2017en
dc.description.abstractBackground: Anemia affects 45% of women of childbearing age in Cambodia. Iron supplementation is recommended in populations in which anemia prevalence is high. However, there are issues of cost, distribution, and adherence. A potential alternative is a reusable fish-shaped iron ingot, which, when added to the cooking pot, leaches iron into the fluid in which it is prepared.Objective: We sought to determine whether there was a difference in hemoglobin concentrations in rural Cambodian anemic women (aged 18-49 y) who cooked with the iron ingot or consumed a daily iron supplement compared with a control after 1 y.Design: In Preah Vihear, 340 women with mild or moderate anemia were randomly assigned to 1) an iron-ingot group, 2) an iron-supplement (18 mg/d) group, or 3) a nonplacebo control group. A venous blood sample was taken at baseline and at 6 and 12 mo. Blood was analyzed for hemoglobin, serum ferritin, and serum transferrin receptor. Hemoglobin electrophoresis was used to detect structural hemoglobin variants.Results: Anemia prevalence was 44% with the use of a portable hemoglobinometer during screening. At baseline, prevalence of iron deficiency was 9% on the basis of a low serum ferritin concentration. There was no significant difference in mean hemoglobin concentrations between the iron-ingot group (115 g/L; 95% CI: 113, 118 g/L; P = 0.850) or iron-supplement group (115 g/L; 95% CI: 113, 117 g/L; P = 0.998) compared with the control group (115 g/L; 95% CI: 113, 117 g/L) at 12 mo. Serum ferritin was significantly higher in the iron-supplement group (73 μg/L; 95% CI: 64, 82 μg/L; P = 0.002) than in the control group at 6 mo; however, this significance was not maintained at 12 mo (73 μg/L; 95% CI: 58, 91 μg/L; P = 0.176).Conclusions: Neither the iron ingot nor iron supplements increased hemoglobin concentrations in this population at 6 or 12 mo. We do not recommend the use of the fish-shaped iron ingot in Cambodia or in countries where the prevalence of iron deficiency is low and genetic hemoglobin disorders are high. This trial was registered at as NCT02341586.en
dc.description.statementofresponsibilityAviva I Rappaport, Kyly C Whitfield, Gwen E Chapman, Rickey Y Yada, Khin Meng Kheang, Jennie Louise, Alastair J Summerlee, Gavin R Armstrong, and Timothy J Greenen
dc.publisherAmerican Society for Nutritionen
dc.rights© 2017 American Society for Nutritionen
dc.subjectanemia; Cambodia; hemoglobin; inflammation; iron deficiency; iron ingot; Lucky Iron Fish; randomized controlled trial; serum ferritin; women of reproductive ageen
dc.titleRandomized controlled trial assessing the efficacy of a reusable fish-shaped iron ingot to increase hemoglobin concentration in anemic, rural Cambodian womenen
dc.typeJournal articleen
pubs.library.collectionPublic Health publicationsen
dc.identifier.orcidLouise, J. [0000-0001-5785-0290]en
dc.identifier.orcidGreen, T. [0000-0002-0667-4300]en
Appears in Collections:Public Health publications

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