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|Title:||An institutional and policy framework to foster integrated rice-duck farming in Asian developing countries|
|Citation:||International Journal of Agricultural Sustainability, 2015; 13(4):294-307|
|Publisher:||Taylor & Francis|
|Abstract:||Asia has accounted for the vast majority of the world's rice and meat-duck production. In the integrated rice–duck farming (IRDF) system, ducklings are released into rice paddies in order to maximize the use of renewable resources in a closed-cycle flow of nutrients during rice vegetation periods. Rice–duck farming used to be widely adopted in tropical and subtropical eastern Asian countries, but has remained unpopular in the wake of prevailing agricultural productivism characterized by specialization, intensification, mechanization and excessive dependence on agrochemicals. This paper sets out institutional pathways that can redevelop IRDF in Asia. These include organic food certification systems, organic farmers' cooperatives, community-wide organic farming, localized technical extension and educational services, and between-farm rice–duck integration. A comprehensive package of these institutional tools would further expedite the expansion of IRDF particularly in low-income Southeast Asia where the rice or duck farming landscape is overwhelmingly dominated by smallholders.|
|Keywords:||Crop-livestock integration; permaculture principles; organic farmers’ cooperatives; community-wide organic farming; between-farm integration|
|Rights:||© 2014 Taylor & Francis|
|Appears in Collections:||Agriculture, Food and Wine publications|
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