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Type: Journal article
Title: A gene-tree test of the traditional taxonomy of American deer: the importance of voucher specimens, geographic data, and dense sampling
Author: Gutierrez, E.
Helgen, K.
McDonough, M.
Bauer, F.
Hawkins, M.
Escobedo-Morales, L.
Patterson, B.
Maldonado, J.
Citation: ZooKeys, 2017; 697(697):87-131
Publisher: Pensoft Publishers
Issue Date: 2017
ISSN: 1313-2989
Statement of
Eliécer E. Gutiérrez, Kristofer M. Helgen, Molly M. McDonough, Franziska Bauer, Melissa T.R. Hawkins, Luis A. Escobedo-Morales, Bruce D. Patterson, Jesus E. Maldonado
Abstract: The taxonomy of American deer has been established almost entirely on the basis of morphological data and without the use of explicit phylogenetic methods; hence, phylogenetic analyses including data for all of the currently recognized species, even if based on a single gene, might improve current understanding of their taxonomy. We tested the monophyly of the morphology-defined genera and species of New World deer (Odocoileini) with phylogenetic analyses of mitochondrial DNA sequences. This is the first such test conducted using extensive geographic and taxonomic sampling. Our results do not support the monophyly of Mazama, Odocoileus, Pudu, M. americana, M. nemorivaga, Od. hemionus, and Od. virginianus. Mazama contains species that belong to other genera. We found a novel sister-taxon relationship between “Mazama” pandora and a clade formed by Od. hemionus columbianus and Od. h. sitkensis, and transfer pandora to Odocoileus. The clade formed by Od. h. columbianus and Od. h. sitkensis may represent a valid species, whereas the remaining subspecies of Od. hemionus appear closer to Od. virginianus. Pudu (Pudu) puda was not found sister to Pudu (Pudella) mephistophiles. If confirmed, this result will prompt the recognition of the monotypic Pudella as a distinct genus. We provide evidence for the existence of an undescribed species now confused with Mazama americana, and identify other instances of cryptic, taxonomically unrecognized species-level diversity among populations here regarded as Mazama temama, “Mazama” nemorivaga, and Hippocamelus antisensis. Noteworthy records that substantially extend the known distributions of M. temama and “M.” gouazoubira are provided, and we unveil a surprising ambiguity regarding the distribution of “M.” nemorivaga, as it is described in the literature. The study of deer of the tribe Odocoileini has been hampered by the paucity of information regarding voucher specimens and the provenance of sequences deposited in GenBank. We pinpoint priorities for future systematic research on the tribe Odocoileini.
Keywords: Deer; cervidae; neotropics; Americas; taxonomy; Odocoileus; Mazama; Pudu; Hippocamelus; phylogenetics; mDNA; CYTB
Rights: Copyright Eliécer E. Gutiérrez et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited. RESEARCH ARTICLE Launched to accelerate biodiversity research A peer-reviewed open-access journal
DOI: 10.3897/zookeys.697.15124
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