Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://hdl.handle.net/2440/110810
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Type: Journal article
Title: Movement coordination patterns between the foot joints during walking
Author: Arnold, J.
Caravaggi, P.
Fraysse, F.
Thewlis, D.
Leardini, A.
Citation: Journal of Foot and Ankle Research, 2017; 10(1):1-7
Publisher: BioMed Central
Issue Date: 2017
ISSN: 1757-1146
1757-1146
Statement of
Responsibility: 
John B. Arnold, Paolo Caravaggi, François Fraysse, Dominic Thewlis and Alberto Leardini
Abstract: Background: In 3D gait analysis, kinematics of the foot joints are usually reported via isolated time histories of joint rotations and no information is provided on the relationship between rotations at different joints. The aim of this study was to identify movement coordination patterns in the foot during walking by expanding an existing vector coding technique according to an established multi-segment foot and ankle model. A graphical representation is also described to summarise the coordination patterns of joint rotations across multiple patients. Methods: Three-dimensional multi-segment foot kinematics were recorded in 13 adults during walking. A modified vector coding technique was used to identify coordination patterns between foot joints involving calcaneus, midfoot, metatarsus and hallux segments. According to the type and direction of joints rotations, these were classified as in-phase (same direction), anti-phase (opposite directions), proximal or distal joint dominant. Results: In early stance, 51 to 75% of walking trials showed proximal-phase coordination between foot joints comprising the calcaneus, midfoot and metatarsus. In-phase coordination was more prominent in late stance, reflecting synergy in the simultaneous inversion occurring at multiple foot joints. Conversely, a distal-phase coordination pattern was identified for sagittal plane motion of the ankle relative to the midtarsal joint, highlighting the critical role of arch shortening to locomotor function in push-off. Conclusions: This study has identified coordination patterns between movement of the calcaneus, midfoot, metatarsus and hallux by expanding an existing vector cording technique for assessing and classifying coordination patterns of foot joints rotations during walking. This approach provides a different perspective in the analysis of multi-segment foot kinematics, and may be used for the objective quantification of the alterations in foot joint coordination patterns due to lower limb pathologies or following injuries.
Keywords: Multi-segment foot kinematics; Rizzoli foot model; walking; foot joints; coupling angle; coordination pattern; vector coding technique
Rights: © The Author(s). 2017. This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver (http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated.
RMID: 0030077227
DOI: 10.1186/s13047-017-0228-z
Grant ID: http://purl.org/au-research/grants/nhmrc/1126229
http://purl.org/au-research/grants/nhmrc/1120560
Appears in Collections:Medicine publications

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