Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://hdl.handle.net/2440/110979
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Type: Journal article
Title: Synergistic roles of climate warming and human occupation in Patagonian megafaunal extinctions during the Last Deglaciation
Author: Metcalf, J.
Turney, C.
Barnett, R.
Martin, F.
Bray, S.
Vilstrup, J.
Orlando, L.
Salas-Gismondi, R.
Loponte, D.
Medina, M.
De Nigris, M.
Civalero, T.
Fernández, P.
Gasco, A.
Duran, V.
Seymour, K.
Otaola, C.
Gil, A.
Paunero, R.
Prevosti, F.
et al.
Citation: Science Advances, 2016; 2(6):e1501682-1-e1501682-8
Publisher: American Association for the Advancement of Science
Issue Date: 2016
ISSN: 2375-2548
2375-2548
Statement of
Responsibility: 
Jessica L. Metcalf, Chris Turney, Ross Barnett, Fabiana Martin, Sarah C. Bray, Julia T. Vilstrup, Ludovic Orlando, Rodolfo Salas-Gismondi, Daniel Loponte, Matías Medina, Mariana De Nigris, Teresa Civalero, Pablo Marcelo Fernández, Alejandra Gasco, Victor Duran, Kevin L. Seymour, Clara Otaola, Adolfo Gil, Rafael Paunero, Francisco J. Prevosti, Corey J. A. Bradshaw, Jane C. Wheeler, Luis Borrero, Jeremy J. Austin, Alan Cooper
Abstract: The causes of Late Pleistocene megafaunal extinctions (60,000 to 11,650 years ago, hereafter 60 to 11.65 ka) remain contentious, with major phases coinciding with both human arrival and climate change around the world. The Americas provide a unique opportunity to disentangle these factors as human colonization took place over a narrow time frame (~15 to 14.6 ka) but during contrasting temperature trends across each continent. Unfortunately, limited data sets in South America have so far precluded detailed comparison. We analyze genetic and radiocarbon data from 89 and 71 Patagonian megafaunal bones, respectively, more than doubling the high-quality Pleistocene megafaunal radiocarbon data sets from the region. We identify a narrow megafaunal extinction phase 12,280 ± 110 years ago, some 1 to 3 thousand years after initial human presence in the area. Although humans arrived immediately prior to a cold phase, the Antarctic Cold Reversal stadial, megafaunal extinctions did not occur until the stadial finished and the subsequent warming phase commenced some 1 to 3 thousand years later. The increased resolution provided by the Patagonian material reveals that the sequence of climate and extinction events in North and South America were temporally inverted, but in both cases, megafaunal extinctions did not occur until human presence and climate warming coincided. Overall, metapopulation processes involving subpopulation connectivity on a continental scale appear to have been critical for megafaunal species survival of both climate change and human impacts.
Keywords: Climate; extinction
Rights: 2016 © The Authors, some rights reserved; exclusive licensee American Association for the Advancement of Science. Distributed under a Creative Commons Attribution NonCommercial License 4.0 (CC BY-NC).
RMID: 0030050732
DOI: 10.1126/sciadv.1501682
Grant ID: http://purl.org/au-research/grants/arc/DP140104233
http://purl.org/au-research/grants/arc/DP0664562
http://purl.org/au-research/grants/arc/FL140100260
http://purl.org/au-research/grants/arc/FT0992331
http://purl.org/au-research/grants/arc/FF0457313
http://purl.org/au-research/grants/arc/FL100100195
http://purl.org/au-research/grants/arc/DP130103842
http://purl.org/au-research/grants/arc/FT110100306
http://purl.org/au-research/grants/arc/FT100100108
Appears in Collections:Earth and Environmental Sciences publications

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