Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: https://hdl.handle.net/2440/111693
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Type: Journal article
Title: Effects of an energy-restricted low-carbohydrate, high unsaturated fat/low saturated fat diet versus a high-carbohydrate, low-fat diet in type 2 diabetes: a 2-year randomized clinical trial
Author: Tay, J.
Thompson, C.
Luscombe-Marsh, N.
Wycherley, T.
Noakes, M.
Buckley, J.
Wittert, G.
Yancy, W.
Brinkworth, G.
Citation: Diabetes, Obesity and Metabolism: a journal of pharmacology and therapeutics, 2018; 20(4):858-871
Publisher: Wiley
Issue Date: 2018
ISSN: 1462-8902
1463-1326
Statement of
Responsibility: 
Jeannie Tay, Campbell H. Thompson, Natalie D. Luscombe-Marsh, Thomas P. Wycherley, Manny Noakes, Jonathan D. Buckley, Gary A. Wittert, William S. Yancy, Grant D. Brinkworth
Abstract: Aim: To examine whether a low-carbohydrate, high-unsaturated/low-saturated fat diet (LC) improves glycaemic control and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors in overweight and obese patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D). Methods: A total of 115 adults with T2D (mean [SD]; BMI, 34.6 [4.3] kg/m2 ; age, 58 [7] years; HbA1c, 7.3 [1.1]%) were randomized to 1 of 2 planned energy-matched, hypocaloric diets combined with aerobic/resistance exercise (1 hour, 3 days/week) for 2 years: LC: 14% energy as carbohydrate, 28% as protein, 58% as fat (<10% saturated fat); or low-fat, high-carbohydrate, low-glycaemic index diet (HC): 53% as CHO, 17% as protein, 30% as fat (<10% saturated fat). HbA1c, glycaemic variability (GV), anti-glycaemic medication effect score (MES, calculated based on the potency and dosage of diabetes medication), weight, body composition, CVD and renal risk markers were assessed before and after intervention. Results: A total of 61 (LC = 33, HC = 28) participants completed the study (trial registration: http://www.anzctr.org.au/, ANZCTR No. ACTRN12612000369820). Reductions in weight (estimated marginal mean [95% CI]; LC, -6.8 [-8.8,-4.7], HC, -6.6 [-8.8, -4.5] kg), body fat (LC, -4.3 [-6.2, -2.4], HC, -4.6 [-6.6, -2.7] kg), blood pressure (LC, -2.0 [-5.9, 1.8]/ -1.2 [-3.6, 1.2], HC, -3.2 [-7.3, 0.9]/ -2.0 [-4.5, 0.5] mmHg), HbA1c (LC, -0.6 [-0.9, -0.3], HC, -0.9 [-1.2, -0.5] %) and fasting glucose (LC, 0.3 [-0.4, 1.0], HC, -0.4 [-1.1, 0.4] mmol/L) were similar between groups (P ≥ 0.09). Compared to HC, the LC achieved greater reductions in diabetes medication use (MES; LC, -0.5 [-0.6, -0.3], HC, -0.2 [-0.4, -0.02] units; P = 0.03), GV (Continuous Overall Net Glycemic Action calculated every 1 hour (LC, -0.4 [-0.6, -0.3], HC, -0.1 [-0.1, 0.2] mmol/L; P = 0.001), and 4 hours (LC, -0.9 [-1.3, -0.6], HC, -0.2 [-0.6, 0.1] mmol/L; P = 0.02)); triglycerides (LC, -0.1 [-0.3, 0.2], HC, 0.1 [-0.2, 0.3] mmol/L; P = 0.001), and maintained HDL-C levels (LC, 0.02 [-0.05, 0.1], HC, -0.1 [-0.1, 0.01] mmol/L; P = 0.004), but had similar changes in LDL-C (LC, 0.2 [-0.1, 0.5], HC, 0.1 [-0.2, 0.4] mmol/L; P = 0.85), brachial artery flow mediated dilatation (LC, -0.5 [-1.5, 0.5], HC, -0.4 [-1.4, 0.7] %; P = 0.73), eGFR and albuminuria. Conclusions: Both diets achieved comparable weight loss and HbA1c reductions. The LC sustained greater reductions in diabetes medication requirements, and in improvements in diurnal blood glucose stability and blood lipid profile, with no adverse renal effects, suggesting greater optimization of T2D management.
Keywords: Dietary intervention; type 2 diabetes; weight control
Rights: © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd
DOI: 10.1111/dom.13164
Grant ID: http://purl.org/au-research/grants/nhmrc/1030415
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