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|Title:||Evaluating water demand shortfalls in segment analysis|
|Citation:||Water Resources Management, 2012; 26(8):2301-2321|
|E. Creaco, M. Franchini, S. Alvisi|
|Abstract:||In this paper, two procedures for assessing water demand shortfalls following segment isolation are compared. The first (topological) procedure is based on a simple topological network analysis, and identifies the water demand shortfall as the water demand (under normal operational conditions) relative to the directly and/or indirectly isolated segment(s). The second (hydraulic) procedure is based on a pressure-driven hydraulic simulation of the network after segment isolation. Each of the two procedures was applied to two case studies, and the reliability (expressed in terms of maximum D max and weighted average D¯¯¯¯ water demand shortfall) and economic burden (expressed in terms of number N val or cost C val of installed valves) of the resulting isolation valve system solution were compared. As a whole, the results show that network analysis and redesign are affected by the choice of the global variables (D max or D¯¯¯¯) used to characterize the demand shortfalls in network segments. Analysis of the case studies is followed by a discussion of the rationale behind the choice between the two procedures, which needs to balance accurate demand shortfall characterization with limited computation times, particularly in the multi-objective design stage.|
|Keywords:||Valves; water distribution systems; multi-objective algorithm; system reliability; pressure-driven|
|Rights:||© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2012|
|Appears in Collections:||Civil and Environmental Engineering publications|
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