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Type: Journal article
Title: Preload-based Starling-like control of rotary blood pumps: an in-vitro evaluation
Author: Mansouri, M.
Gregory, S.
Salamonsen, R.
Lovell, N.
Stevens, M.
Pauls, J.
Akmeliawati, R.
Lim, E.
Citation: PLoS ONE, 2017; 12(2):e0172393-1-e0172393-15
Publisher: Public Library Science
Issue Date: 2017
ISSN: 1932-6203
Statement of
Mahdi Mansouri, Shaun D. Gregory, Robert F. Salamonsen, Nigel H. Lovell, Michael C. Stevens, Jo P. Pauls, Rini Akmeliawati, Einly Lim
Abstract: Due to a shortage of donor hearts, rotary left ventricular assist devices (LVADs) are used to provide mechanical circulatory support. To address the preload insensitivity of the constant speed controller (CSC) used in conventional LVADs, we developed a preload-based Starling-like controller (SLC). The SLC emulates the Starling law of the heart to maintain mean pump flow ([Formula: see text]) with respect to mean left ventricular end diastolic pressure (PLVEDm) as the feedback signal. The SLC and CSC were compared using a mock circulation loop to assess their capacity to increase cardiac output during mild exercise while avoiding ventricular suction (marked by a negative PLVEDm) and maintaining circulatory stability during blood loss and severe reductions in left ventricular contractility (LVC). The root mean squared hemodynamic deviation (RMSHD) metric was used to assess the clinical acceptability of each controller based on pre-defined hemodynamic limits. We also compared the in-silico results from our previously published paper with our in-vitro outcomes. In the exercise simulation, the SLC increased [Formula: see text] by 37%, compared to only 17% with the CSC. During blood loss, the SLC maintained a better safety margin against left ventricular suction with PLVEDm of 2.7 mmHg compared to -0.1 mmHg for CSC. A transition to reduced LVC resulted in decreased mean arterial pressure (MAP) and [Formula: see text] with CSC, whilst the SLC maintained MAP and [Formula: see text]. The results were associated with a much lower RMSHD value with SLC (70.3%) compared to CSC (225.5%), demonstrating improved capacity of the SLC to compensate for the varying cardiac demand during profound circulatory changes. In-vitro and in-silico results demonstrated similar trends to the simulated changes in patient state however the magnitude of hemodynamic changes were different, thus justifying the progression to in-vitro evaluation.
Keywords: Exercise; Hemodynamics; Heart; Blood pressure; Starlings; Cardiac output; Cardiac ventricles; Sensory physiology
Rights: © 2017 Mansouri et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
RMID: 0030085500
DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0172393
Appears in Collections:Mechanical Engineering publications

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