Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://hdl.handle.net/2440/113910
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Type: Journal article
Title: Maternal age and offspring developmental vulnerability at age five: A population-based cohort study of Australian children
Author: Falster, K.
Hanly, M.
Banks, E.
Lynch, J.
Chambers, G.
Brownell, M.
Eades, S.
Jorm, L.
Citation: PLoS Medicine, 2018; 15(4):e1002558-1-e1002558-20
Publisher: Public Library of Science (PLoS)
Issue Date: 2018
ISSN: 1549-1277
1549-1676
Statement of
Responsibility: 
Kathleen Falster, Mark Hanly, Emily Banks, John Lynch, Georgina Chambers, Marni Brownell, Sandra Eades, Louisa Jorm
Abstract: Background: In recent decades, there has been a shift to later childbearing in high-income countries. There is limited large-scale evidence of the relationship between maternal age and child outcomes beyond the perinatal period. The objective of this study is to quantify a child’s risk of developmental vulnerability at age five, according to their mother’s age at childbirth. Methods and findings: Linkage of population-level perinatal, hospital, and birth registration datasets to data from the Australian Early Development Census (AEDC) and school enrolments in Australia’s most populous state, New South Wales (NSW), enabled us to follow a cohort of 99,530 children from birth to their first year of school in 2009 or 2012. The study outcome was teacher-reported child development on five domains measured by the AEDC, including physical health and well-being, emotional maturity, social competence, language and cognitive skills, and communication skills and general knowledge. Developmental vulnerability was defined as domain scores below the 2009 AEDC 10th percentile cut point. The mean maternal age at childbirth was 29.6 years (standard deviation [SD], 5.7), with 4,382 children (4.4%) born to mothers aged <20 years and 20,026 children (20.1%) born to mothers aged ≥35 years. The proportion vulnerable on ≥1 domains was 21% overall and followed a reverse J-shaped distribution according to maternal age: it was highest in children born to mothers aged ≤15 years, at 40% (95% CI, 32–49), and was lowest in children born to mothers aged between 30 years and ≤35 years, at 17%–18%. For maternal ages 36 years to ≥45 years, the proportion vulnerable on ≥1 domains increased to 17%–24%. Adjustment for sociodemographic characteristics significantly attenuated vulnerability risk in children born to younger mothers, while adjustment for potentially modifiable factors, such as antenatal visits, had little additional impact across all ages. Although the multi-agency linkage yielded a broad range of sociodemographic, perinatal, health, and developmental variables at the child’s birth and school entry, the study was necessarily limited to variables available in the source data, which were mostly recorded for administrative purposes. Conclusions: Increasing maternal age was associated with a lesser risk of developmental vulnerability for children born to mothers aged 15 years to about 30 years. In contrast, increasing maternal age beyond 35 years was generally associated with increasing vulnerability, broadly equivalent to the risk for children born to mothers in their early twenties, which is highly relevant in the international context of later childbearing. That socioeconomic disadvantage explained approximately half of the increased risk of developmental vulnerability associated with younger motherhood suggests there may be scope to improve population-level child development through policies and programs that support disadvantaged mothers and children.
Keywords: Humans; Cohort Studies; Child Development; Age Factors; Maternal Age; Pregnancy; Adolescent; Adult; Middle Aged; Child, Preschool; Infant, Newborn; Vulnerable Populations; Australia; Female; Male; Young Adult; Sociological Factors
Description: Published: April 24, 2018
Rights: © 2018 Falster et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
RMID: 0030086333
DOI: 10.1371/journal.pmed.1002558
Grant ID: http://purl.org/au-research/grants/nhmrc/1061713
http://purl.org/au-research/grants/nhmrc/1016475
http://purl.org/au-research/grants/nhmrc/573122
http://purl.org/au-research/grants/nhmrc/1042717
http://purl.org/au-research/grants/nhmrc/1013418
Appears in Collections:Public Health publications

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