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Type: Journal article
Title: Differential induction of micronuclei in peripheral lymphocytes and exfoliated urothelial cells of workers exposed to 4,4′-methylenebis-(2- chloroaniline) (MOCA) and bitumen fumes
Author: Murray, E.
Edwards, J.
Citation: Reviews on Environmental Health, 2005; 20(3):163-176
Publisher: Walter de Gruyter
Issue Date: 2005
ISSN: 0048-7554
Statement of
E.B. Murray, J.W. Edwards
Abstract: Cytogenetic end-points used to estimate risk of genotoxic events in workers include the measurement of micronuclei (MN) in exfoliated cells, lymphocytes, and other tissues. Micronuclei are chromatin-containing bodies outside the cell nucleus resulting from contaminant-induced DNA damage. A review of 71 reports of human genotoxic responses to chemical or physical agents published between 1999 and 2001 revealed that 14% of such studies measured genotoxicity endpoints in specific target tissues relevant to the site of disease for the agent examined; 18% used endpoints in surrogate or non-target tissues but considered the relations between endpoints in surrogate and disease target tissues, and 68% measured genotoxicity endpoints in accessible tissues without reference to specific targets for disease. Methylenebis-(2-chloroaniline) (MOCA), used in polyurethane manufacture, is a suspected bladder carcinogen. Bitumen, used in road surfacing, contains skin and lung carcinogens. In this study, we aimed to compare genotoxicity in urothelial cells and in lymphocytes of workers exposed to these materials. Twelve men employed in polyurethane manufacture, twelve bitumen road layers, and eighteen hospital stores personnel (controls) were recruited and all provided blood and urine samples on the same day. Blood cultures were prepared using a cytochalasin B-block method. Exfoliated urothelial cells were collected from urine and stained for light microscopy. The number of MN in urothelial cells was higher in MOCA-exposed (14.27 +/- 0.56 MN/1000, 9.69 +/- 0.32 MN cells/1000) than in bitumen exposed workers (11.99 +/- 0.65 MN/1000, 8.66 +/- 0.46 MN cells/1000) or in control subjects (6.88 +/- 0.18 MN/1000, 5.17 +/- 0.11 MN cells/1000). Conversely, in lymphocytes, MN were higher in bitumen-exposed (16.24 +/- 0.63 MN/1000, 10.65 +/- 0.24 MN cells/1000) than in MOCA-exposed workers (13.25 +/- 0.48 MN/1000, 8.54 +/- 0.14 MN cells/1000) or in control subjects (9.24 +/- 0.29 MN/ 1000, 5.93 +/- 0.13 MN cells/1000). The results of this study suggest that genotoxins can cause different rates of micronuclei formation in different tissues. Thus, the sensitivity and relevance to cancer risk may be greater if the tissues selected for genotoxicity studies reflect the target tissue for the chemicals concerned.
Keywords: Methylenebis(chloroaniline)
Rights: © 2005 Freund Publishing House Ltd.
RMID: 0030086854
DOI: 10.1515/reveh.2005.20.3.163
Appears in Collections:Public Health publications

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