Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item:
Scopus Web of Science® Altmetric
Type: Theses
Title: Use of directed evolution to generate multiple-stress tolerant Oenococcus oeni for enhanced malolactic fermentation
Author: Jiang, Jiao
Issue Date: 2017
School/Discipline: School of Agriculture, Food and Wine
Abstract: This study aimed to optimise Oenococcus oeni for more efficient malolactic fermentation in wine with multiple stressors. First, a previously evolved ethanol tolerant strain, A90, was characterised for resistance to combined pH and ethanol stress in both MRSAJ and Red Fermented Chemically Defined Grape Juice Medium (RFCDGJM). A90 showed a similar viability in RFCDGJM compared to its parent, SB3, indicating the need for further improvement. With the success of the previous proof-of-concept directed evolution (DE) in O. oeni, a new DE was carried out to determine 1) if DE can be applied to further improve A90 in a wine-like environment using combinations of stressors to generate more superior strains with better general stress resistance; 2) how much further can A90 be developed, and how stable the new phenotype would be; 3) possible new patterns of stress response through study of the genetic basis for the superior phenotype. A continuous culture of A90 was established in a bioreactor and grown in a wine-like environment for approximately 350 generations with increasing ethanol and sulfur dioxide (SO₂), and decreasing pH over time. Samples of the population in the bioreactor were collected at three significant times during the DE to screen for improved isolates based on L-malic acid consumption and growth. Three strains, namely 1-161, 2-49 and 3-83, outperformed from a total of 378 isolates. With a view to applying these strains to the industry, in-depth physiological characterisations were undertaken. Aspects examined included tolerance to various oenologically related stressors such as ethanol, pH, SO₂ and medium chain fatty acids, as well as phenotype stability and fermentation ability under more realistic winemaking conditions, i.e. un-filtered wine and winery scale fermentation. Overall, 2-49 and 3-83 constantly displayed better growth and malolactic activity than the parent strain A90 in either lab-scale or winery-scale trials. Finally, whole genome sequencing of strains SB3, A90, 2-49 and 3-83 and genetic characterisation were utilised to investigate changes during DE in O. oeni. A total of 19 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were found in 2-49 and 3-83 strains compared to A90. The SNPs identified may affect cell envelope and fatty acids biosynthesis, DNA translation and homeostasis of internal pH, leading to the improved performance of DE strains. Sequences were also compared to the available sequence for commercial strain VP41. Several mutations were identified in stress response genes, indicating VP41 and SB3-related strains might have different responses to stressors. SNPs in the predicted mleA promoter sequence may suggest a new mechanism of MLF activation. Additionally, Nucleotide BLAST was used to analyse the presence of genes with oenological traits in SB3-related strains. Genes associated with the release of desirable aromas were found, whilst genes involved in the formation of biogenic amines were absent. This study expands the knowledge regarding optimisation of O. oeni, and may be helpful for the further improvement of food-related microbes with enhanced performance.
Advisor: Jiranek, Vladimir
Grbin, Paul Ramon
Sumby, Krista M
Sundstrom, Joanna F
Dissertation Note: Thesis (Ph.D.) (Research by Publication) -- University of Adelaide, School of Agriculture, Food and Wine, 2017.
Keywords: directed evolution
Oenococcus oeni
malolactic fermentation
whole genome sequencing
Research by Publication
Provenance: This electronic version is made publicly available by the University of Adelaide in accordance with its open access policy for student theses. Copyright in this thesis remains with the author. This thesis may incorporate third party material which has been used by the author pursuant to Fair Dealing exceptions. If you are the owner of any included third party copyright material you wish to be removed from this electronic version, please complete the take down form located at:
DOI: 10.25909/5ba1ef1c145f6
Appears in Collections:Research Theses

Files in This Item:
File Description SizeFormat 
01front.pdf264.82 kBAdobe PDFView/Open
02whole.pdf5.8 MBAdobe PDFView/Open
  Restricted Access
Library staff access only496.64 kBAdobe PDFView/Open
  Restricted Access
Library staff access only6.52 MBAdobe PDFView/Open

Items in DSpace are protected by copyright, with all rights reserved, unless otherwise indicated.