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|Title:||Optimization of cat's whiskers tea (orthosiphon stamineus) using supercritical carbon dioxide and selective chemotherapeutic potential against prostate cancer cells|
Khadeer Ahamed, M.
Abdul Majid, A.
Abdul Majid, A.
|Citation:||Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, 2014; 2014:396016-1-396016-15|
|Publisher:||Hindawi Publishing Corporation|
|Fouad Saleih R. Al-Suede, Mohamed B. Khadeer Ahamed, Aman S. Abdul-Majid, Hussin M. Baharetha, Loiy E.A. Hassan, Mohd Omar A. Kadir, Zeyad D. Nassar and Amin M.S. Abdul Majid|
|Abstract:||Cat's whiskers (Orthosiphon stamineus) leaves extracts were prepared using supercritical CO₂ (SC-CO₂) with full factorial design to determine the optimum extraction parameters. Nine extracts were obtained by varying pressure, temperature, and time. The extracts were analysed using FTIR, UV-Vis, and GC-MS. Cytotoxicity of the extracts was evaluated on human (colorectal, breast, and prostate) cancer and normal fibroblast cells. Moderate pressure (31.1 MPa) and temperature (60°C) were recorded as optimum extraction conditions with high yield (1.74%) of the extract (B2) at 60 min extraction time. The optimized extract (B2) displayed selective cytotoxicity against prostate cancer (PC3) cells (IC₅₀ 28 µg/mL) and significant antioxidant activity (IC₅₀ 42.8 µg/mL). Elevated levels of caspases 3/7 and 9 in B2-treated PC3 cells suggest the induction of apoptosis through nuclear and mitochondrial pathways. Hoechst and rhodamine assays confirmed the nuclear condensation and disruption of mitochondrial membrane potential in the cells. B2 also demonstrated inhibitory effects on motility and colonies of PC3 cells at its subcytotoxic concentrations. It is noteworthy that B2 displayed negligible toxicity against the normal cells. Chemometric analysis revealed high content of essential oils, hydrocarbon, fatty acids, esters, and aromatic sesquiterpenes in B2. This study highlights the therapeutic potentials of SC-CO₂ extract of cat's whiskers in targeting prostate carcinoma.|
|Rights:||Copyright © 2014 Fouad Saleih R. Al-Suede et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.|
|Appears in Collections:||Medicine publications|
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