Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://hdl.handle.net/2440/115816
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Type: Journal article
Title: Epidemiology and mortality of Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia in Australian and New Zealand children
Author: McMullan, B.
Bowen, A.
Blyth, C.
Van Hal, S.
Korman, T.
Buttery, J.
Voss, L.
Roberts, S.
Cooper, C.
Tong, S.
Turnidge, J.
Citation: JAMA Pediatrics, 2016; 170(10):979-986
Publisher: American Medical Association
Issue Date: 2016
ISSN: 2168-6203
2168-6211
Statement of
Responsibility: 
Brendan J. McMullan, Asha Bowen, Christopher C. Blyth, Sebastiaan Van Hal, Tony M. Korman, Jim Buttery, Lesley Voss, Sally Roberts, Celia Cooper, Steven Y.C. Tong, John Turnidge
Abstract: Importance: Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia (SAB) in children causes significant morbidity and mortality, but the epidemiology in children is not well characterized. Objective: To describe the epidemiology of SAB in children and adolescents younger than 18 years from Australia and New Zealand. Design, Setting and Participants: A prospective cohort study, using data from the Australian New Zealand Cooperative on Outcomes in Staphylococcal Sepsis cohort for 1153 children with SAB from birth to less than 18 years in pediatric and general hospitals across Australia and New Zealand, collected between January 1, 2007, and December 31, 2012. Multivariate analysis was performed to identify risk factors for mortality. Incidence calculations were calculated separately for Australasian children younger than 15 years using postcode population denominator data from Australian and New Zealand census data. Main Outcomes and Measures: Demographic data, hospital length of stay, principal diagnosis, place of SAB onset (community or hospital), antibiotic susceptibility and principal antibiotic treatment, and 7- and 30-day mortality. Results: Of the 1153 children with SAB, complete outcome data were available for 1073 children (93.1%); of these, males accounted for 684 episodes (63.7%) of SAB. The median age was 57 months (interquartile range, 2 months to 12 years). The annual incidence of SAB for Australian children was 8.3 per 100 000 population and was higher in indigenous children (incident rate ratio, 3.0 [95% CI, 2.4-3.7]), and the incidence for New Zealand children was 14.4 per 100 000 population and was higher in Māori children (incident rate ratio, 5.4 [95% CI, 4.1-7.0]). Community-onset SAB occurred in 761 cases (70.9%), and 142 cases (13.2%) of the infections were methicillin-resistant S aureus (MRSA). Bone or joint infection was most common with 348 cases (32.4%), and endocarditis was uncommon with 30 cases (2.8%). Seven- and 30-day mortality rates were 2.6% (n = 28) and 4.7% (n = 50), respectively. Risk factors for mortality were age younger than 1 year; Māori or Pacific ethnicity; endocarditis, pneumonia, or sepsis; and receiving no treatment or treatment with vancomycin. Mortality was 14.0% (6 of 43) in children with methicillin-susceptible S aureus (MSSA) treated with vancomycin compared with 2.6% (22 of 851) in children treated with alternative agents (OR, 6.1 [95% CI, 1.9-16.7]). MRSA infection was associated with increased length of stay but not mortality. Conclusions and Relevance: In this large cohort study of the epidemiology of SAB in children, death was uncommon, but the incidence was higher for infants and varied by treatment, ethnicity, and clinical presentation. This study provides important information on the epidemiology of SAB in children and risk factors for mortality.
Keywords: Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia; epidemiology
Description: Published online August 15, 2016. Corrected on November 7, 2016.
Rights: Copyright 2016 American Medical Association. All rights reserved.
RMID: 0030059379
DOI: 10.1001/jamapediatrics.2016.1477
Appears in Collections:Medicine publications

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