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Type: Journal article
Title: An aggravated trajectory of depression and anxiety co-morbid with hepatitis C: a within-groups study of 61 Australian outpatients
Author: Stewart, B.
Turnbull, D.
Mikocka-Walus, A.
Harley, H.
Andrews, J.
Citation: Clinical Practice and Epidemiology in Mental Health, 2015; 11(1):174-179
Publisher: Bentham Open
Issue Date: 2015
ISSN: 1745-0179
Statement of
Benjamin J.R. Stewart, Deborah Turnbull, Antonina A. Mikocka-Walus, Hugh Harley and Jane M. Andrews
Abstract: BACKGROUND: This study aimed to explore the course of depression and anxiety in chronic hepatitis C patients. METHODS:  Data were combined from two studies: (1) Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) scores in 395 consecutive Australian outpatients from 2006 to 2010 formed the baseline measurement; and (2) Depression Anxiety Stress Scales (DASS) scores in a survey of a sub-sample of these patients in 2011 formed the follow-up measurement. After converting DASS to HADS scores, changes in symptom scores and rates of case-ness (≥8), and predictors of follow-up symptoms were assessed. RESULTS:  Follow-up data were available for 61 patients (70.5% male) whose age ranged from 24.5 to 74.6 years (M=45.6). The time to follow-up ranged from 20.7 to 61.9 months (M=43.8). Baseline rates of depression (32.8%) and anxiety (44.3%) increased to 62.3% and 67.2%, respectively. These findings were confirmed, independent of the conversion, by comparing baseline HADS and follow-up DASS scores with British community norms. Baseline anxiety and younger age predicted depression, while baseline anxiety, high school non-completion, and single relationship status predicted anxiety. CONCLUSION: This study demonstrated a worsening trajectory of depression and anxiety. Further controlled and prospective research in a larger sample is required to confirm these findings.
Keywords: Anxiety; depression; hepatitis C; prognosis; trajectory
Rights: © Stewart et al.; Licensee Bentham Open. This is an open access article licensed under the terms of the (, which permits unrestricted, non-commercial use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the work is properly cited.
DOI: 10.2174/1745017901511010174
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