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|Title:||Cryogenian evolution of stigmasteroid biosynthesis|
Van Maldegem, L.
|Citation:||Science Advances, 2017; 3(9):e1700887-1-e1700887-7|
|Publisher:||American Association for the Advancement of Science|
|Yosuke Hoshino, Aleksandra Poshibaeva, William Meredith, Colin Snape, Vladimir Poshibaev, Gerard J.M. Versteegh, Nikolay Kuznetsov, Arne Leider, Lennart van Maldegem, Mareike Neumann, Sebastian Naeher, Małgorzata Moczydłowska, Jochen J. Brocks, Amber J.M. Jarrett, Qing Tang, Shuhai Xiao, David McKirdy, Supriyo Kumar Das, José Javier Alvaro, Pierre Sansjofre, Christian Hallmann|
|Abstract:||Sedimentary hydrocarbon remnants of eukaryotic C₂₆-C₃₀ sterols can be used to reconstruct early algal evolution. Enhanced C₂₉ sterol abundances provide algal cell membranes a density advantage in large temperature fluctuations. Here, we combined a literature review with new analyses to generate a comprehensive inventory of unambiguously syngenetic steranes in Neoproterozoic rocks. Our results show that the capacity for C₂₉ 24-ethyl-sterol biosynthesis emerged in the Cryogenian, that is, between 720 and 635 million years ago during the Neoproterozoic Snowball Earth glaciations, which were an evolutionary stimulant, not a bottleneck. This biochemical innovation heralded the rise of green algae to global dominance of marine ecosystems and highlights the environmental drivers for the evolution of sterol biosynthesis. The Cryogenian emergence of C₂₉ sterol biosynthesis places a benchmark for verifying older sterane signatures and sets a new framework for our understanding of early algal evolution.|
|Keywords:||Steroids; Stigmasterol; Ecology; Ecosystem; Geography; Geologic Sediments; Paleontology; Biosynthetic Pathways; Chlorophyta; Biological Evolution|
|Rights:||Copyright © 2017 The Authors, some rights reserved; exclusive licensee American Association for the Advancement of Science. No claim to original U.S. Government Works. Distributed under a Creative Commons Attribution NonCommercial License 4.0 (CC BY-NC). This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial license, which permits use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, so long as the resultant use is not for commercial advantage and provided the original work is properly cited.|
|Appears in Collections:||Earth and Environmental Sciences publications|
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