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|Title:||Acute consumption of walnuts and walnut components differentially affect postprandial lipemia, endothelial function, oxidative stress, and cholesterol efflux in humans with mild hypercholesterolemia|
|Citation:||Journal of Nutrition, 2013; 143(6):788-794|
|Publisher:||American Society for Nutrition|
|Claire E. Berryman, Jessica A. Grieger, Sheila G. West, Chung-Yen O. Chen, Jeffrey B. Blumberg, George H. Rothblat, Sandhya Sankaranarayanan, Penny M. Kris-Etherton|
|Abstract:||Walnut consumption improves cardiovascular disease risk; however, to our knowledge, the contribution of individual walnut components has not been assessed. This study evaluated the acute consumption of whole walnuts (85 g), separated nut skins (5.6 g), de-fatted nutmeat (34 g), and nut oil (51 g) on postprandial lipemia, endothelial function, and oxidative stress. Cholesterol efflux (ex vivo) was assessed in the whole walnut treatment only. A randomized, 4-period, crossover trial was conducted in healthy overweight and obese adults (n = 15) with moderate hypercholesterolemia. There was a treatment × time point interaction for triglycerides (P < 0.01) and increased postprandial concentrations were observed for the oil and whole walnut treatments (P < 0.01). Walnut skins decreased the reactive hyperemia index (RHI) compared with baseline (P = 0.02) such that a difference persisted between the skin and oil treatments (P = 0.01). The Framingham RHI was maintained with the oil treatment compared with the skins and whole nut (P < 0.05). There was a treatment effect for the ferric reducing antioxidant potential (FRAP) (P < 0.01), and mean FRAP was greater with the oil and skin treatments compared with the nutmeat (P < 0.01). Cholesterol efflux increased by 3.3% following whole walnut consumption in J774 cells cultured with postprandial serum compared with fasting baseline (P = 0.02). Walnut oil favorably affected endothelial function and whole walnuts increased cholesterol efflux. These 2 novel mechanisms may explain in part the cardiovascular benefits of walnuts.|
|Keywords:||Endothelium, Vascular; Cell Line; Macrophages; Humans; Juglans; Nuts; Hypercholesterolemia; Obesity; Cholesterol; Dietary Carbohydrates; Lipids; Dietary Fats; Dietary Proteins; Diet; Oxidative Stress; Energy Intake; Heart Rate; Postprandial Period; Adult; Middle Aged; Female; Male; Overweight|
|Rights:||© 2013 American Society for Nutrition.|
|Appears in Collections:||Animal and Veterinary Sciences publications|
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