Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: https://hdl.handle.net/2440/117195
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Type: Journal article
Title: Evaluation of etorphine and midazolam anesthesia, and the effect of intravenous butorphanol on cardiopulmonary parameters in game-ranched white rhinoceroses (ceratotherium simum)
Author: Langhout, M.V.Z.
Caraguel, C.G.
Raath, J.P.
Boardman, W.S.
Citation: Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine, 2016; 47(3):827-833
Publisher: American Association of Zoo Veterinarians
Issue Date: 2016
ISSN: 1042-7260
1937-2825
Statement of
Responsibility: 
Martine van Zijll Langhout, Charles G.B. Caraguel, Jacobus P. Raath and Wayne S. J. Boardman
Abstract: Nineteen white rhinoceroses ( Ceratotherium simum ) were anesthetized with 4 mg of etorphine hydrochloride; 35-40 mg of midazolam; and 7,500 international units of hyaluronidase for dehorning purposes at a game ranch in South Africa, to investigate this anesthetic combination. Median time to recumbency was 548 sec (range 361-787 sec). Good muscle relaxation and no muscle rigidity or tremors were observed in 18 animals, and only 1 individual showed slight tremors. In addition, all animals received butorphanol i.v. 5 min after recumbency at the ratio of 10 mg of butorphanol per 1 mg of etorphine. Blood gas and selected physiologic parameters were measured in the recumbent animal, immediately before and 10 min after the administration of butorphanol. Statistically significant improvements were observed in blood gas physiologic and cardiopulmonary parameters 10 min after the administration of butorphanol, with a reduction in arterial partial pressure of carbon dioxide, systolic blood pressure, and heart rate and an increase in pH, arterial partial pressure of oxygen, oxygen saturation, and respiratory rate (all P < 0.005). After i.v. naltrexone reversal, recovery was uneventful, and median time to walking or running was 110 sec (range 71-247 sec). The results indicate etorphine and midazolam combination is an effective alternative anesthetic protocol and produces good muscle relaxation. Furthermore, i.v. butorphanol was associated with improved blood gas values and cardiopulmonary function for at least 10 min postinjection.
Keywords: Blood gas values; butorphanol; Ceratotherium simum; etorphine; midazolam; white rhinoceros
Rights: Copyright 2016 by American Association of Zoo Veterinarians
DOI: 10.1638/2015-0167.1
Published version: http://dx.doi.org/10.1638/2015-0167.1
Appears in Collections:Animal and Veterinary Sciences publications
Aurora harvest 8

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