Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item:
Scopus Web of Science® Altmetric
Type: Journal article
Title: Dietary protein intake, breast feeding and growth in human milk fed preterm infants
Author: Tonkin, E.
Miller, J.
Makrides, M.
McPhee, A.
Morris, S.
Gibson, R.
Collins, C.
Citation: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 2018; 15(6):1196-1-1196-11
Publisher: MDPI
Issue Date: 2018
ISSN: 1661-7827
Statement of
Emma Tonkin, Jacqueline Miller, Maria Makrides, Andrew J. McPhee, Scott A. Morris, Robert A. Gibson and Carmel T. Collins
Abstract: Protein intakes of preterm infants are frequently below recommendations, but few studies report accurate intakes due to the difficulty of analysing human milk clinically. This observational analysis from a randomised trial of infants born <31 weeks’ gestation, investigating two levels of protein fortification, reports protein intakes compared with requirements and determines the association of direct breastfeeding on growth. Ninety-two infants (median gestational age 28 weeks, Interquartile range (IQR) 26–29; mean birth weight 1040 g, SD 300 g) were studied. Infants born weighing <1000 g were underfed protein compared with recommendations (median (IQR) intake of 3.0 (2.0–3.7) g/kg/day in week 2 versus recommendation of 4–4.5 g/kg/day), while those born weighing ≥1000 g met recommended protein intakes after the first week of life (median (IQR) intake of 3.7 (3.0–4.0) g/kg/day in week 2 versus recommendation of 3.5–4.5 g/kg/day). A moderate, negative correlation between the mean number of breast feeds and change in rate of weight gain (r = −0.37, p = 0.001) was found. Protein intakes of infants <1000 g did not meet recommendations and all infants were underfed protein and energy in the first week of life. Current protein fortification is inadequate for infants born <1000 g. Exploratory analysis showed faltering rate weight gain associated with increasing number of breast feeds and these results warrant confirmation.
Keywords: Breast feeding; dietary proteins; enteral nutrition; infant–premature; milk–human; weight gain
Rights: © 2018 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (
DOI: 10.3390/ijerph15061196
Grant ID:
Appears in Collections:Aurora harvest 3
Medicine publications

Files in This Item:
File Description SizeFormat 
hdl_117384.pdfPublished version453.22 kBAdobe PDFView/Open

Items in DSpace are protected by copyright, with all rights reserved, unless otherwise indicated.