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dc.contributor.authorTonkin, E.-
dc.contributor.authorMiller, J.-
dc.contributor.authorMakrides, M.-
dc.contributor.authorMcPhee, A.-
dc.contributor.authorMorris, S.-
dc.contributor.authorGibson, R.-
dc.contributor.authorCollins, C.-
dc.identifier.citationInternational Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 2018; 15(6):1196-1-1196-11-
dc.description.abstractProtein intakes of preterm infants are frequently below recommendations, but few studies report accurate intakes due to the difficulty of analysing human milk clinically. This observational analysis from a randomised trial of infants born <31 weeks’ gestation, investigating two levels of protein fortification, reports protein intakes compared with requirements and determines the association of direct breastfeeding on growth. Ninety-two infants (median gestational age 28 weeks, Interquartile range (IQR) 26–29; mean birth weight 1040 g, SD 300 g) were studied. Infants born weighing <1000 g were underfed protein compared with recommendations (median (IQR) intake of 3.0 (2.0–3.7) g/kg/day in week 2 versus recommendation of 4–4.5 g/kg/day), while those born weighing ≥1000 g met recommended protein intakes after the first week of life (median (IQR) intake of 3.7 (3.0–4.0) g/kg/day in week 2 versus recommendation of 3.5–4.5 g/kg/day). A moderate, negative correlation between the mean number of breast feeds and change in rate of weight gain (r = −0.37, p = 0.001) was found. Protein intakes of infants <1000 g did not meet recommendations and all infants were underfed protein and energy in the first week of life. Current protein fortification is inadequate for infants born <1000 g. Exploratory analysis showed faltering rate weight gain associated with increasing number of breast feeds and these results warrant confirmation.-
dc.description.statementofresponsibilityEmma Tonkin, Jacqueline Miller, Maria Makrides, Andrew J. McPhee, Scott A. Morris, Robert A. Gibson and Carmel T. Collins-
dc.rights© 2018 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (
dc.subjectBreast feeding; dietary proteins; enteral nutrition; infant–premature; milk–human; weight gain-
dc.titleDietary protein intake, breast feeding and growth in human milk fed preterm infants-
dc.typeJournal article-
dc.identifier.orcidMakrides, M. [0000-0003-3832-541X]-
dc.identifier.orcidMcPhee, A. [0000-0003-3820-5696]-
dc.identifier.orcidGibson, R. [0000-0002-8750-525X]-
dc.identifier.orcidCollins, C. [0000-0003-3308-9948]-
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