Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://hdl.handle.net/2440/117628
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Type: Journal article
Title: Evolution of the oral microbiome and dental caries
Author: Adler, C.
Browne, G.
Sukumar, S.
Hughes, T.
Citation: Current Oral Health Reports, 2017; 4(3):264-269
Publisher: Springer
Issue Date: 2017
ISSN: 2196-3002
2196-3002
Statement of
Responsibility: 
Christina J Adler, Gina V Browne, Smitha Sukumar, Toby Hughes
Abstract: Purpose of our review Our paper reviews how dietary changes during human evolution have contributed to the increased incidence and prevalence of dental caries in modern populations by shifting the oral microbiome from a “healthy” to “carious” state. We addressed two questions: (1) what is the microbial difference between the states of health and caries, and (2) how has the development of an agricultural diet impacted the oral microbiome? RECENT FINDINGS The application of next-generation sequencing has revealed the complexity of the oral microbiome and lack of a simple compositional difference between health and caries. Genetic analysis of the oral microbiome from contemporary and ancient humans has shown that the introduction of agriculture was associated with increased frequency of caries-related bacteria and the evolution of the key carious pathogen, Streptococcus mutans. SUMMARY The adoption of an agricultural diet has contributed to a modern rise in caries by changing the oral microbiome ecology. Identification of evolutionary factors that have influenced the oral microbiome in health and caries, and how the two states differ functionally, as opposed to compositionally, may help to reduce the current burden of caries.
Keywords: Oral microbiome; dental caries; evolution; diet; agriculture; hunter-gatherer
Rights: © Springer International Publishing AG 2017
RMID: 0030075021
DOI: 10.1007/s40496-017-0151-1
Appears in Collections:Dentistry publications

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