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|Title:||Opioids and matrix metalloproteinases: the influence of morphine on MMP-9 production and cancer progression|
|Citation:||Naunyn-Schmiedeberg's Archives of Pharmacology, 2019; 392(2):123-133|
|Samira Khabbazi, Mohammadhossein Hassanshahi, Alireza Hassanshahi, Yaser Peymanfar, Yu-Wen Su, Cory J. Xian|
|Abstract:||Opioids are widely administered to alleviate pain, including chronic pain in advanced cancer patients. Among opioids, morphine is one of the most clinically effective drugs for the palliative management of severe pain. In the last few decades, there has been a debate around the possible influence of opioids such as morphine on tumour growth and metastasis. Whilst several in vitro and in vivo studies suggest the possible modulatory effects of morphine on tumour cells, little is known about the impact of this analgesic drug on other mediators such as matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) that play a key role in the control of cancer cell invasion and metastasis. MMP-9 has been considered as one of the principal mediators in regulation of not only the initial steps of cancer but during the invasion and spreading of cancer cells to distant organs. Herein, current studies regarding the direct and indirect effects of morphine on regulation of MMP-9 production are discussed. In addition, drawing from previous in vivo and in vitro studies on morphine action in regulating MMP-9 production, the potential roles of several underlying factors are summarised, including nuclear factor kappa-B and intracellular molecules such as nitric oxide.|
|Keywords:||MMP-9; Matrix metalloproteinases; Morphine; NF-κB; Nitric oxide; Opioids|
|Rights:||© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019|
|Appears in Collections:||Pharmacology publications|
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