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|Title:||Impact of clay type and water composition on low salinity water injection - visualisation approach|
|Citation:||APPEA Journal, 2018; 58(1):51-59|
|Publisher:||CSIRO Publishing; Australian Petroleum Production and Exploration Association|
|Tammy Amirian and Manouchehr Haghighi|
|Abstract:||Low salinity water (LSW) injection as an enhanced oil recovery method has attracted much attention in the past two decades. Previously, it was found that the presence of clay such as kaolinite and water composition like the nature of cations affect the enhancement of oil recovery under LSW injection. In this study, a pore-scale visualisation approach was developed using a 2D glass micromodel to investigate the impact of clay type and water composition on LSW injection. The glass micromodels were coated by kaolinite and illite. A meniscus moving mechanism was observed and the oil–water interface moved through narrow throats to large bodies, displacing the wetting phase (oil phase). In the presence of kaolinite, the effect of LSW injection was reflected in the change to the wettability with a transition towards water-wetness in the large sections of the pore walls. The advance of the stable water front left behind an oil film on the oil-wet portions of pore walls; however, in water-wet surfaces, the interface moved towards the surface and replaced the oil film. As a result of wettability alteration towards a water-wet state, the capillary forces were not dominant throughout the system and the water–oil menisci displaced oil in large portions of very narrow channels. This LSW effect was not observed in the presence of illite. With regard to the water composition effect, systems containing divalent cations like Ca²⁺ showed the same extent of recovery as those containing only monovalent ions. The observation indicates a significant role of cation exchange in wettability alteration. Fines migration was insignificant in the observations.|
|Keywords:||Cation exchange; clay minerals; EOR; fines migration; LSW injection; wettability|
|Rights:||Journal compilation © APPEA 2018|
|Appears in Collections:||Australian School of Petroleum publications|
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