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Type: Journal article
Title: Hydrothermal alteration and ore-forming fluids associated with gold-tellurium mineralization in the Dongping gold deposit, China
Author: Gao, S.
Xu, H.
Li, S.
Santosh, M.
Zhang, D.
Yang, L.
Quan, S.
Citation: Ore Geology Reviews, 2017; 80:166-184
Publisher: Elsevier
Issue Date: 2017
ISSN: 0169-1368
Statement of
Shen Gao, Hong Xu, Shengrong Li, M. Santosh, Desen Zhang, Lijun Yang, Shaolong Quan
Abstract: The Dongping gold deposit hosted in syenites is one of the largest hydrothermal gold deposits in China and composed of ore veins in the upper parts and altered zones in the lower parts of the ore bodies. Pervasive potassic alteration and silicification overprint the wall rocks of the ore deposit. The alteration minerals include orthoclase, microcline, perthite, quartz, sericite, epidote, calcite, hematite and pyrite, with the quartz, pyrite and hematite assemblages closely associated with gold mineralization. The phases of hydrothermal alteration include: (i) potassic alteration, (ii) potassic alteration - silicification, (iii) silicification - epidotization - hematitization, (iv) silicification - sericitization - pyritization and (v) carbonation. Mass-balance calculations in potassic altered and silicified rocks reveal the gain of K₂O, Na₂O, SiO₂, HFSEs and transition elements (TEs) and the loss of REEs. Most major elements were affected by intense mineral reactions, and the REE patterns of the ore are consistent with those of the syenites. Gold, silver and tellurium show positive correlation and close association with silicification. Fluid inclusion homogenization temperatures in quartz veins range from 154 °C to 382 °C (peak at 275 °C–325 °C), with salinities of 4–9 wt.% NaCl equiv. At temperatures of 325 °C the fluid is estimated to have pH = 3.70–5.86, log fO₂ = − 32.4 to − 28.1, with Au and Te transported as Au (HS)⁻₂ and Te²⁻₂ complexes. The ore forming fluids evolved from high pH and fO₂ at moderate temperatures into moderate-low pH, low fO2 and low temperature conditions. The fineness of the precipitated native gold and the contents of the oxide minerals (e.g., magnetite and hematite) decreased, followed by precipitation of Au- and Ag-bearing tellurides. The hydrothermal system was derived from an alkaline magma and the deposit is defined as an alkaline rock-hosted hydrothermal gold deposit.
Keywords: Hydrothermal alteration; ore-forming fluids; gold-tellurium mineralization; Dongping gold deposit; Hebei province (China)
Rights: © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
DOI: 10.1016/j.oregeorev.2016.06.023
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