Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: https://hdl.handle.net/2440/119044
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Type: Journal article
Title: Growth patterns and individual variation in mid-sagittal facial soft tissue depth from childhood to adulthood
Author: Mckinnon, M.
Simpson, E.
Henneberg, M.
Citation: Journal of Forensic Sciences, 2018; 63(6):1641-1651
Publisher: Wiley
Issue Date: 2018
ISSN: 0022-1198
1556-4029
Statement of
Responsibility: 
Meghan R. McKinnon, Ellie K. Simpson and Maciej Henneberg
Abstract: Previous studies have used longitudinal samples to investigate growth of the skeletal aspects of the face, although far less has been done on facial soft tissue. This study uses a larger sample than previous studies on the same data (Denver and Fels growth series) to explore covariation of bony and soft facial dimensions comprehensively from childhood to adulthood. A total of 1036 lateral cephalometric radiographs were digitized from 60 individuals, and distances between facial landmarks were measured using ImageJ. Multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) showed all bony facial landmark distances were significantly different (p > 0.05) between age groups; however, only half were significantly different between sexes. Further analysis showed the effect of age (calculated as eta-squared) explained a greater percentage of total variation (20%) than sex (15%). Overall, soft tissue changes between 0 and 19 years of age were small (<3 mm) and only some were correlated to underlying facial skeleton dimensions.
Keywords: Forensic science; forensic anthropology; craniofacial variation; craniofacial dimensions; facial soft tissue thickness; child facial growth
Rights: © 2018 American Academy of Forensic Sciences
DOI: 10.1111/1556-4029.13768
Published version: http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1556-4029.13768
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