Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://hdl.handle.net/2440/119046
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Type: Journal article
Title: Adequate vitamin B-12 and riboflavin status from menus alone in residential care facilities in the Lower Mainland, British Columbia
Author: Whitfield, K.C.
da Silva, L.
Feldman, F.
Singh, S.
McCann, A.
McAnena, L.
Ward, M.
McNulty, H.
Barr, S.
Green, T.J.
Citation: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, 2019; 44(4):414-419
Publisher: NRC Research Press
Issue Date: 2019
ISSN: 1066-7814
1715-5320
Statement of
Responsibility: 
Kyly C. Whitfield, Liz da Silva, Fabio Feldman, Sonia Singh, Adrian McCann, Liadhan McAnena, Mary Ward, Helene McNulty, Susan I. Barr, Tim J. Green
Abstract: Older adults have potential increased risk of nutrient deficiencies because of age-related decreased dietary intake and malabsorption; it is important to ensure nutrient needs are met to avoid adverse health outcomes. B vitamins are of particular interest: vitamin B12 deficiency can cause irreversible neurodegeneration; there is mandatory folic acid fortification in Canada; and suboptimal riboflavin status has been reported among older adults in the United Kingdom. In this exploratory secondary analysis study we assessed vitamin B12 and riboflavin biochemical status (via microparticle enzyme immunoassay and erythrocyte glutathione reductase activity coefficient (EGRac), respectively), and the vitamin B12, riboflavin, and folate content of menus served to a convenience sample of older adults (≥65 years) from 5 residential care facilities within the Lower Mainland of British Columbia, Canada. Diet was assessed from customized 28-day cycle meal plans. Participants (n = 207; 53 men and 154 women) were aged 86 ± 7 years, largely of European descent (92%), and nonsmokers (95%). The menus served had a low prevalence of inadequacy for vitamin B12 and riboflavin (only 4% and 1% of menus contained less than the estimated average requirement (EAR), respectively), but 93% contained less than the EAR for folate. Mean ± SD serum total vitamin B12 concentration was 422 ± 209 pmol/L, and EGRac was 1.30 ± 0.19. The majority of older adults in residential care were provided with adequate vitamin B12 and riboflavin menu amounts, and only 5% were vitamin B12 deficient (<148 pmol/L). However, 26% were riboflavin deficient (EGRac ≥ 1.4), which may warrant further investigation.
Keywords: Vitamin B12 (cobalamin); riboflavin (vitamin B2); older adults; residential care; menu assessment; folate
Rights: Copyright remains with the author(s) or their institution(s). Permission for reuse (free in most cases) can be obtained from RightsLink.
RMID: 0030110067
DOI: 10.1139/apnm-2018-0459
Appears in Collections:Medicine publications

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