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dc.contributor.advisorBartsch, Katharine-
dc.contributor.authorMalaque, Isidoro R.-
dc.description.abstractIn 2015, the United Nations published World Urbanization Prospects declaring that 54% of the world’s population now lives in urban areas while it is estimated that this figure will reach 66% by 2050 with nearly 90% of this increase located in Asia and Africa (United Nations 2015). In this context of unprecedented urbanisation coupled with widespread urban poverty, squatter settlements are often the only means of affordable shelter for the urban poor. In Asia and Africa (and elsewhere), governments are committed to providing shelter for the low income sector of their respective nations as a basic human right. However, housing policy and programmes in developing countries, like the Philippines, are often based on models (applied with varying degrees of success) which originate in high-income countries. Known, alternatively, as a ‘one-step regularisation model’; ‘instant development’; or, a ‘product approach’, this model is intended to relocate the urban poor from a squatter settlement to a regular housing market in a single step. Despite the diffusion of this model, this approach has often resulted in more problems rather than offering effective solutions. Given these alarming statistics and the housing implications, this research examines the phenomenon of a ‘multi-step transition’ process to evaluate housing for the urban poor and incremental or ‘progressive development’ within settlements in developing countries. The research comprises a case study which examined 74 low income households in 11 urban settlements in Davao City, Philippines; a country which is classified as a lower-middle income country (United Nations 2015). Based on detailed site analysis, and comprehensive interviews with policy makers, NGOs and householders, the shelters were classified into five different types ranging from informal to formal housing types. The data revealed how the urban poor had become legal owners of formal housing units in due course. Formal housing status was achieved in one of three ways. Firstly, through a multi-step transition process whereby informal housing units were gradually upgraded to formal status. Secondly, through the provision of low cost housing units with assistance from the government for land development and security of tenure, and participation by NGOs to construct the housing. Thirdly, through the conventional provision of housing units by the government or the private sector; a one-step regularisation model. This research focuses on the role of citizen participation in housing provision. To do so, the multi-step transition process is examined with reference to interdisciplinary literature on the topic as well as the politics of citizen participation specific to the Philippines. This process tended to happen in two ways. Either, an inhabitant moved from one housing type to another in a different location, or, an informal housing unit was upgraded to become a formal housing unit in the same location. In the latter case, pro-poor housing policies, sites and services programmes and community mortgage programmes coupled with self-help housing initiatives and NGO assistance led to secure tenure, the physical development of the settlements, and finally the refurbishment of individual houses according to the building code. This multi-step transition process offers valuable lessons about effective and sustainable housing interventions which can enhance the status and well-being of the urban poor in developing countries. Moreover, the findings have the potential to inform housing policy in this sector.en
dc.subjectInformal settlementsen
dc.subjectSocial-spatial processesen
dc.subjectHousing policyen
dc.subjectProgressive developmenten
dc.subjectSecure tenureen
dc.subjectUrban pooren
dc.titleMulti-Step Transition in Housing Provision and Progressivedevelopment of Urban Settlements: Case of Davao City, Philippinesen
dc.contributor.schoolSchool of Architecture and Built Environmenten
dc.provenanceThis electronic version is made publicly available by the University of Adelaide in accordance with its open access policy for student theses. Copyright in this thesis remains with the author. This thesis may incorporate third party material which has been used by the author pursuant to Fair Dealing exceptions. If you are the owner of any included third party copyright material you wish to be removed from this electronic version, please complete the take down form located at:
dc.description.dissertationThesis (Ph.D.) -- University of Adelaide, School of Architecture & Built Environment, 2017en
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