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Type: Journal article
Title: Food services using energy- and protein-fortified meals to assist vulnerable community-residing older adults meet their dietary requirements and maintain good health and quality of life: findings from a pilot study
Author: Arjuna, T.
Miller, M.
Ueno, T.
Visvanathan, R.
Lange, K.
Soenen, S.
Chapman, I.
Luscombe-Marsh, N.
Citation: Geriatrics, 2018; 3(3):1-17
Publisher: MDPI
Issue Date: 2018
ISSN: 2308-3417
Statement of
Tony Arjuna, Michelle Miller, Tomoko Ueno, Renuka Visvanathan, Kylie Lange, Stijn Soenen, Ian Chapman and Natalie Luscombe-Marsh
Abstract: The effects of "standard (STD)" vs. "protein- and energy-enriched (HEHP)" food-service meals on the nutrient intake, nutritional status, functional capacity, and wellbeing of older adults was investigated using a 12 week, double-blinded, parallel group design. All participants received dietetics counseling and either an STD (2.3 MJ and 30 g protein per meal) or a HEHP (4.6 MJ and 60 g protein) hot lunchtime meal for at least 3 days/week; those who did not want food-service meals were included in the control group (CON). Twenty-nine participants completed the study (STD = 7; HEHP = 12; CON = 10). From baseline to week 12, the HEHP subjects increased their mean daily energy intake from 6151 ± 376 kJ to 8228 ± 642 kJ (p = 0.002 for effect of time) and protein intake from 67 ± 4 g to 86 ± 8 g (p = 0.014 for effect of time). The MNA (Mini Nutritional Assessment) score was increased significantly in HEHP by 4.0 ± 1.1 points (p = 0.001), but not in the STD and CON groups (2.8 ± 2.1 points and 1.8 ± 1.1 points, p > 0.05). No difference was found for other clinical outcomes between the groups. The findings indicate that provision of HEHP-fortified food-service meals can increase energy and protein intake and improve the nutritional status of nutritionally at-risk older people.
Keywords: elderly
functional status
hospital admission
meal services
meals on wheels
nutritional status
quality of life
Rights: © 2018 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (
DOI: 10.3390/geriatrics3030060
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