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Type: Journal article
Title: In vitro antimicrobial activity of robenidine, ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid and polymyxin B nonapeptide against important human and veterinary pathogens
Author: Khazandi, M.
Pi, H.
Chan, W.Y.
Ogunniyi, A.D.
Sim, J.X.F.
Venter, H.
Garg, S.
Page, S.W.
Hill, P.B.
McCluskey, A.
Trott, D.J.
Citation: Frontiers in Microbiology, 2019; 10(APR):837-1-837-15
Publisher: Frontiers Media
Issue Date: 2019
ISSN: 1664-302X
Statement of
Manouchehr Khazandi, Hongfei Pi, Wei Yee Chan, Abiodun David Ogunniyi, Jowenna Xiao Feng Sim, Henrietta Venter, Sanjay Garg, Stephen W. Page, Peter B. Hill, Adam McCluskey, and Darren J. Trott
Abstract: The emergence and global spread of antimicrobial resistance among bacterial pathogens demand alternative strategies to treat life-threatening infections. Combination drugs and repurposing of old compounds with known safety profiles that are not currently used in human medicine can address the problem of multidrug-resistant infections and promote antimicrobial stewardship in veterinary medicine. In this study, the antimicrobial activity of robenidine alone or in combination with ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) or polymyxin B nonapeptide (PMBN) against Gram-negative bacterial pathogens, including those associated with canine otitis externa and human skin and soft tissue infection, was evaluated in vitro using microdilution susceptibility testing and the checkerboard method. Fractional inhibitory concentration indices (FICIs) and dose reduction indices (DRI) of the combinations against tested isolates were determined. Robenidine alone was bactericidal against Acinetobacter baumannii [minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) mode = 8 μg/ml] and Acinetobacter calcoaceticus (MIC mode = 2 μg/ml). Against Acinetobacter spp., an additivity/indifference of the combination of robenidine/EDTA (0.53 > FICIs > 1.06) and a synergistic effect of the combination of robenidine/PMBN (0.5 < FICI) were obtained. DRIs of robenidine were significantly increased in the presence of both EDTA and PMBN from 2- to 2048-fold. Robenidine exhibited antimicrobial activity against Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, in the presence of sub-inhibitory concentrations of either EDTA or PMBN. Robenidine also demonstrated potent antibacterial activity against multidrug-resistant Gram-positive pathogens and all Gram-negative pathogens isolated from cases of canine otitis externa in the presence of EDTA. Robenidine did not demonstrate antibiofilm activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. EDTA facilitated biofilm biomass degradation for both Gram-positives and Gram-negatives. The addition of robenidine to EDTA was not associated with any change in the effect on biofilm biomass degradation. The combination of robenidine with EDTA or PMBN has potential for further exploration and pharmaceutical development, such as incorporation into topical and otic formulations for animal and human use.
Keywords: Robenidine; combination; antimicrobial; canine otitis externa; EDTA
Rights: Copyright © 2019 Khazandi, Pi, Chan, Ogunniyi, Sim, Venter, Garg, Page, Hill, McCluskey and Trott. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.
DOI: 10.3389/fmicb.2019.00837
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Appears in Collections:Animal and Veterinary Sciences publications
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