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Type: Journal article
Title: A combined meta-barcoding and shotgun metagenomic analysis of spontaneous wine fermentation
Author: Sternes, P.
Lee, D.
Kutyna, D.
Borneman, A.
Citation: GigaScience, 2017; 6(7):1-30
Publisher: Oxford University Press
Issue Date: 2017
ISSN: 2047-217X
Statement of
Peter R. Sternes Danna Lee Dariusz R. Kutyna Anthony R. Borneman
Abstract: Wine is a complex beverage, comprising hundreds of metabolites produced through the action of yeasts and bacteria in fermenting grape must. Commercially, there is now a growing trend away from using wine yeast (Saccharomyces) starter cultures, toward the historic practice of uninoculated or "wild" fermentation, where the yeasts and bacteria associated with the grapes and/or winery perform the fermentation. It is the varied metabolic contributions of these numerous non-Saccharomyces species that are thought to impart complexity and desirable taste and aroma attributes to wild ferments in comparison to their inoculated counterparts. To map the microflora of spontaneous fermentation, metagenomic techniques were employed to characterize and monitor the progression of fungal species in 5 different wild fermentations. Both amplicon-based ribosomal DNA internal transcribed spacer (ITS) phylotyping and shotgun metagenomics were used to assess community structure across different stages of fermentation. While providing a sensitive and highly accurate means of characterizing the wine microbiome, the shotgun metagenomic data also uncovered a significant overabundance bias in the ITS phylotyping abundance estimations for the common non-Saccharomyces wine yeast genus Metschnikowia. By identifying biases such as that observed for Metschnikowia, abundance measurements from future ITS phylotyping datasets can be corrected to provide more accurate species representation. Ultimately, as more shotgun metagenomic and single-strain de novo assemblies for key wine species become available, the accuracy of both ITS-amplicon and shotgun studies will greatly increase, providing a powerful methodology for deciphering the influence of the microbial community on the wine flavor and aroma.
Keywords: Saccharomyces cerevisiae; Fermentation; Wine; Metagenome; DNA Barcoding, Taxonomic
Rights: © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (, which permits unrestricted reuse, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
RMID: 0030105162
DOI: 10.1093/gigascience/gix040
Appears in Collections:Agriculture, Food and Wine publications

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