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|Title:||Downstream evolution of n-heptane/toluene flames in hot and vitiated coflows|
|Citation:||Combustion and Flame, 2019; 202:78-89|
|Michael J. Evans, Paul R. Medwell, Zhiwei Sun, Alfonso Chinnici, Jingjing Ye, Qing N. Chan, Bassam B. Dally|
|Abstract:||The scenario of fuel injected into hot surrounds is found in a range of practical combustion applica- tions. These flame conditions have been emulated using a jet-in-hot-coflow-burner using prevaporised n -heptane and mixtures of n -heptane and toluene, relevant to gasoline and diesel fuel surrogates. This paper reports measurements of six lifted, turbulent flames, with a constant jet flow of a prevaporised fuel/N 2 mixture at 380 K into various hot and vitiated coflow conditions. Five of these flames issued into coflows generated by the combustion of different mixtures of ethylene/air and one had a coflow from a natural gas/air flame. Two n -heptane/toluene fuel blends were also measured to study the effect of soot propensity. Gas sampling, non-linear excitation regime two-line atomic fluorescence (NTLAF) and laser- induced incandescence (LII) were used to characterise the flames, investigate the mixing between the hot coflow and the surrounding air, and measure the flame temperature for the different coflow config- urations. A comparison of results of the flames issuing into hot coflows is presented, indicating that the hottest flame is not associated with the coflow containing the highest concentration of O 2 , but with the minimum soot loading and, consequently, the minimum radiative heat loss. Subsequent numerical simu- lations of canonical opposed-flow flames demonstrate that the soot loading in the downstream region of the flames is strongly dependent on PAH formation in the hot coflow region and further analyses reveal the chemical pathways which are most impacted by small variations in hot coflow composition.|
|Keywords:||Heptane; toluene; turbulent flames; vitiated coflows; MILD combustion|
|Rights:||© 2019 The Combustion Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.|
|Appears in Collections:||Mechanical Engineering publications|
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