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|Title:||Direct interaction of whole-inactivated influenza A and pneumococcal vaccines enhances influenza-specific immunity|
|Citation:||Nature Microbiology, 2019; 4(8):1316-1327|
|Shannon C. David, Todd Norton, Timona Tyllis, Jasmine J. Wilson, Eve V. Singleton, Zoe Laan, Justin Davies, Timothy R. Hirst, Iain Comerford, Shaun R. McColl, James C. Paton and Mohammed Alsharifi|
|Abstract:||The upper respiratory tract is continuously exposed to a vast array of potentially pathogenic viruses and bacteria. Influenza A virus (IAV) has particular synergism with the commensal bacterium Streptococcus pneumoniae in this niche, and co-infection exacerbates pathogenicity and causes significant mortality. However, it is not known whether this synergism is associated with a direct interaction between the two pathogens. We have previously reported that co-administration of a whole-inactivated IAV vaccine (γ-Flu) with a whole-inactivated pneumococcal vaccine (γ-PN) enhances pneumococcal-specific responses. In this study, we show that mucosal co-administration of γ-Flu and γ-PN similarly augments IAV-specific immunity, particularly tissue-resident memory cell responses in the lung. In addition, our in vitro analysis revealed that S. pneumoniae directly interacts with both γ-Flu and with live IAV, facilitating increased uptake by macrophages as well as increased infection of epithelial cells by IAV. These observations provide an additional explanation for the synergistic pathogenicity of IAV and S. pneumoniae, as well as heralding the prospect of exploiting the phenomenon to develop better vaccine strategies for both pathogens.|
|Rights:||© The Author(s), under exclusive licence to Springer Nature Limited 2019|
|Appears in Collections:||Environment Institute publications|
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