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Type: Journal article
Title: Investigation of two Fermi-LAT gamma-ray blazars coincident with high-energy neutrinos detected by IceCube
Author: Garrappa, S.
Buson, S.
Franckowiak, A.
Shappee, B.J.
Beacom, J.F.
Dong, S.
Holoien, T.W.S.
Kochanek, C.S.
Prieto, J.L.
Stanek, K.Z.
Thompson, T.A.
Aartsen, M.G.
Ackermann, M.
Adams, J.
Aguilar, J.A.
Ahlers, M.
Ahrens, M.
Alispach, C.
Andeen, K.
Anderson, T.
et al.
Citation: The Astrophysical Journal: an international review of astronomy and astronomical physics, 2019; 880(2):103-1-103-17
Publisher: IOP Publishing
Issue Date: 2019
ISSN: 0004-637X
Statement of
S. Garrappa … G.C. Hill … A. Kyriacou … A. Wallace … B.J. Whelan … et al. (The Fermi-LAT Collaboration, The ASAS-SN Collaboration, and the IceCube Collaboration)
Abstract: After the identification of the gamma-ray blazar TXS 0506+056 as the first compelling IceCube neutrino source candidate, we perform a systematic analysis of all high-energy neutrino events satisfying the IceCube realtime trigger criteria. We find one additional known gamma-ray source, the blazar GB6 J1040+0617, in spatial coincidence with a neutrino in this sample. The chance probability of this coincidence is 30% after trial correction. For the first time, we present a systematic study of the gamma-ray flux, spectral and optical variability, and multiwavelength behavior of GB6 J1040+0617 and compare it to TXS 0506+056. We find that TXS 0506+056 shows strong flux variability in the Fermi-Large Area Telescope gamma-ray band, being in an active state around the arrival of IceCube-170922A, but in a low state during the archival IceCube neutrino flare in 2014/15. In both cases the spectral shape is statistically compatible (≤2σ) with the average spectrum showing no indication of a significant relative increase of a high-energy component. While the association of GB6 J1040+0617 with the neutrino is consistent with background expectations, the source appears to be a plausible neutrino source candidate based on its energetics and multiwavelength features, namely a bright optical flare and modestly increased gamma-ray activity. Finding one or two neutrinos originating from gamma-ray blazars in the given sample of high-energy neutrinos is consistent with previously derived limits of neutrino emission from gamma-ray blazars, indicating the sources of the majority of cosmic high-energy neutrinos remain unknown.
Rights: © 2019. The American Astronomical Society. All rights reserved.
DOI: 10.3847/1538-4357/ab2ada
Grant ID: ARC
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