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Type: Journal article
Title: The effect of foot orthoses and insoles on running economy and performance in distance runners: a systematic review and meta-analysis
Author: Crago, D.
Bishop, C.
Arnold, J.B.
Citation: Journal of Sports Sciences, 2019; 37(22):2613-2624
Publisher: Taylor & Francis
Issue Date: 2019
ISSN: 0264-0414
Statement of
Daniel Crago, Christopher Bishop, and John B. Arnold
Abstract: Foot orthoses and insoles are prescribed to runners, however their impact on running economy and performance is uncertain. The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to determine the effect of foot orthoses and insoles on running economy and performance in distance runners. Seven electronic databases were searched from inception until June 2018. Eligible studies investigated the effect of foot orthoses or insoles on running economy (using indirect calorimetry) or running performance. Standardised mean differences (SMDs) were computed and meta-analyses were conducted using random effects models. Methodological quality was assessed using the Quality Index. Nine studies met the criteria and were included: five studies investigated the effect of foot orthoses on running economy and four investigated insoles. Foot orthoses were associated with small negative effects on running economy compared to no orthoses (SMD 0.42 [95% CI 0.17,0.72] p = 0.007). Shock absorbing insoles were also associated with negative effects on running economy, but an imprecise estimate (SMD 0.26 [95% CI −0.33,0.84] p = 0.83). Quality Index scores ranged from 4 to 15 out of 17. Foot orthoses and shock absorbing insoles may adversely affect running economy in distance runners. Future research should consider their potential effects on running performance.
Keywords: Foot orthoses; orthotic; running; biomechanics; economy
Rights: © 2019 Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group
DOI: 10.1080/02640414.2019.1651582
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