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Type: Journal article
Title: Impact of main pipe flow velocity on leakage and intrusion flow: an experimental study
Author: Shao, Y.
Yao, T.
Gong, J.
Liu, J.
Zhang, T.
Yu, T.
Citation: Water: an open access journal, 2019; 11(1):118-1-118-12
Publisher: MDPI
Issue Date: 2019
ISSN: 2073-4441
Statement of
Yu Shao, Tian Yao, Jinzhe Gong, Jinjie Liu, Tuqiao Zhang, and Tingchao Yu
Abstract: The classic orifice equation is commonly used to calculate the leakage and intrusion rate for pressurized pipelines with cracks on the pipe wall. The conventional orifice equation does not consider the effect of the flow velocity in the main pipe, and there is a lack of studies on this matter. For this technical note, the influence of the main pipe flow velocity on the outflow and inflow through a crack on the pipe wall was studied in the laboratory. The experimental results show that the impact of the main pipe flow velocity can be significant. When the pressure difference across the orifice was constant, with the increase of the main pipe flow velocity, the outflow velocity increased, but the contraction area of the jet and the outflow discharge coefficient decreased. By comparing orifices with different shapes, it was found that the discharge from the circumferential crack was most sensitive to the main pipe flow velocity. In addition, the main pipe flow promoted the orifice inflow. When the pressure difference across the orifice was constant, with the increase of the main pipe flow velocity, the inflow discharge coefficient increased, which is the opposite pattern to that of the orifice outflow.
Keywords: Intrusion; orifice; pipe leakage; flow velocity; water distribution system
Rights: © 2019 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (
DOI: 10.3390/w11010118
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Civil and Environmental Engineering publications

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