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dc.contributor.authorThredgold, L.-
dc.contributor.authorGaskin, S.-
dc.contributor.authorQuy, C.-
dc.contributor.authorPisaniello, D.-
dc.identifier.citationInternational Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 2019; 16(23):4798-1-4798-11-
dc.description.abstractDichlorvos is a toxic organophosphate insecticide that is used in agriculture and other insecticide applications. Dermal uptake is a known exposure route for dichlorvos and chemical protective gloves are commonly utilized. Chemical handling and application may occur in a variety of thermal environments, and the rates of both chemical permeation through gloves and transdermal penetration may vary significantly with temperature. There has been no published research on the temperature-dependent kinetics of these processes for dichlorvos and thus, this study reports on the effects of hot conditions for the concentrated and application strength chemical. Dichlorvos breakthrough times for non-disposable polyvinyl chloride (PVC) gloves at 60 °C were approximately halved compared to 25 °C for the concentrate (2 vs. 4 h) and more than halved at application strength (3 vs. >8 h). From permeation experiments covering 15–60 °C, there was a 460-fold increase in cumulative permeation over 8 h for the concentrated dichlorvos and the estimated activation energy halved. Elevated temperature was also shown to be a significant factor for human skin penetration increasing the cumulative penetration of concentrate dichlorvos from 179 ± 37 to 1315 ± 362 µg/cm² (p = 0.0032) and application strength from 29.8 ± 5.7 to 115 ± 19 µg/cm² (p = 0.0131). This work illustrates the important role temperature plays in glove performance and health risk via dermal exposure. As such, it is important to consider in-use conditions of temperature when implementing chemical hygiene programs.-
dc.description.statementofresponsibilityLeigh Thredgold, Sharyn Gaskin , Chloe Quy and Dino Pisaniello-
dc.rights© 2019 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (
dc.subjectOrganophosphate; protective gloves; dermal; percutaneous penetration-
dc.titleExposure of agriculture workers to pesticides: the effect of heat on protective glove performance and skin exposure to dichlorvos-
dc.typeJournal article-
dc.identifier.orcidThredgold, L. [0000-0003-1564-4047]-
dc.identifier.orcidGaskin, S. [0000-0002-1507-6425]-
dc.identifier.orcidPisaniello, D. [0000-0002-4156-0608]-
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