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dc.contributor.authorYip, H.L.-
dc.contributor.authorSrna, A.-
dc.contributor.authorYuen, A.C.Y.-
dc.contributor.authorKook, S.-
dc.contributor.authorTaylor, R.A.-
dc.contributor.authorYeoh, G.H.-
dc.contributor.authorMedwell, P.R.-
dc.contributor.authorChan, Q.N.-
dc.identifier.citationApplied Sciences, 2019; 9(22):4842-1-4842-30-
dc.description.abstractA paradigm shift towards the utilization of carbon-neutral and low emission fuels is necessary in the internal combustion engine industry to fulfil the carbon emission goals and future legislation requirements in many countries. Hydrogen as an energy carrier and main fuel is a promising option due to its carbon-free content, wide flammability limits and fast flame speeds. For spark-ignited internal combustion engines, utilizing hydrogen direct injection has been proven to achieve high engine power output and efficiency with low emissions. This review provides an overview of the current development and understanding of hydrogen use in internal combustion engines that are usually spark ignited, under various engine operation modes and strategies. This paper then proceeds to outline the gaps in current knowledge, along with better potential strategies and technologies that could be adopted for hydrogen direct injection in the context of compression-ignition engine applications—topics that have not yet been extensively explored to date with hydrogen but have shown advantages with compressed natural gas.-
dc.description.statementofresponsibilityHo Lung Yip, Aleš Srna, Anthony Chun Yin Yuen, Sanghoon Kook, Robert A. Taylor, Guan Heng Yeoh, Paul R. Medwell, and Qing Nian Chan-
dc.rights© 2019 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (
dc.subjectHydrogen; internal combustion engine; compression ignition; dual-fuel engine; direct injection; high pressure gas jet; jet penetration-
dc.titleA review of hydrogen direct injection for internal combustion engines: towards carbon-free combustion-
dc.typeJournal article-
dc.identifier.orcidMedwell, P.R. [0000-0002-2216-3033]-
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