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dc.contributor.authorLam, E.en
dc.contributor.authorMoore, C.en
dc.contributor.authorGotuzzo, E.en
dc.contributor.authorNwizu, C.en
dc.contributor.authorKamarulzaman, A.en
dc.contributor.authorChetchotisakd, P.en
dc.contributor.authorVan Wyk, J.en
dc.contributor.authorTeppler, H.en
dc.contributor.authorKumarasamy, N.en
dc.contributor.authorMolina, J.en
dc.contributor.authorEmery, S.en
dc.contributor.authorCooper, D.en
dc.contributor.authorBoyd, M.en
dc.identifier.citationAIDS Research and Human Retroviruses, 2016; 32(9):841-850en
dc.description.abstractWe investigate mutations and correlates according to HIV-1 subtype after virological failure (VF) of standard first-line antiretroviral therapy (ART) (non-nucleoside/nucleotide reverse transcriptase inhibitor [NNRTI] +2 nucleoside/nucleotide reverse transcriptase inhibitor [N(t)RTI]). SECOND-LINE study participants were assessed at baseline for HIV-1 subtype, demographics, HIV-1 history, ART exposure, viral load (VL), CD4(+) count, and genotypic ART resistance. We used backward stepwise multivariate regression (MVR) to assess associations between baseline variables and presence of ≥3 N(t)RTI mutations, ≥1 NNRTI mutation, ≥3 thymidine analog-N(t)RTI [ta-N(t)RTI] mutations (TAMs), the K65/K70 mutation, and predicted etravirine (ETV)/rilpivirine (RPV) activity. The inclusion p-value for MVR was p < .2. The exclusion p-value from stepwise elimination was p > .05. Of 541 participants, 491 (91%) had successfully characterized baseline viral isolates. Subtype distribution: B (n = 123, 25%), C (n = 202, 41%), CRF01_AE (n = 109, 22%), G (n = 25, 5%), and CRF02_AG (n = 27, 5%). Baseline CD4(+) 200-394 cells/mm(3) were associated with <3 N(t)RTI mutations (OR = 0.47; 95% CI 0.29-0.77; p = .003), absence of the K65/K70 mutation (OR = 0.43; 95% CI 0.26-0.73; p = .002), and higher ETV sensitivity (OR = 0.52; 95% CI 0.35-0.78; p = .002). Recent tenofovir (TDF) use was associated with K65/K70 mutations (OR = 8.91; 95% CI 5.00-15.85; p < .001). Subtype CRF01_AE was associated with ≥3 N(t)RTI mutations (OR = 2.34; 95% CI 1.31-4.17; p = .004) and higher RPV resistance (OR = 2.13; 95% CI 1.30-3.49; p = .003), and subtype C was associated with <3 TAMs (OR = 0.45; 95% CI 0.21-0.99; p = .015). Subtypes CRF01_AE (OR = 2.46; 95% CI 1.26-4.78; p = .008) and G (OR = 4.77; 95% CI 1.44-15.76; p = .01) were associated with K65/K70 mutations. Higher VL at confirmed first-line VF was associated with ≥3 N(t)RTI mutations (OR = 1.39; 95% CI 1.07-1.78; p = .013) and ≥3 TAMs (OR = 1.62; 95% CI 1.15-2.29; p = .006). The associations of first-line resistance mutations across the HIV-1 subtypes in this study are consistent with knowledge derived from subtype B, with some exceptions. Patterns of resistance after failure of a first-line ta-N(t)RTI regimen support using TDF in N(t)RTI-containing second-line regimens, or using N(t)RTI-sparing regimens.en
dc.description.statementofresponsibilityEdward P. Lam, Cecilia L. Moore, Eduardo Gotuzzo, Chidi Nwizu, Adeeba Kamarulzaman, Ploenchan Chetchotisakd, Jean van Wyk, Hedy Teppler, Nagalingeswaran Kumarasamy, Jean-Michel Molina, Sean Emery, David A. Cooper, and Mark A. Boyd, for the SECOND-LINE study groupen
dc.publisherMary Ann Lieberten
dc.rights© Mary Ann Liebert, Inc.en
dc.titleAntiretroviral resistance after first-line antiretroviral therapy failure in diverse HIV-1 subtypes in the SECOND-LINE studyen
dc.typeJournal articleen
pubs.library.collectionMedicine publicationsen
dc.identifier.orcidBoyd, M. [0000-0002-6848-3307]en
Appears in Collections:Ecology, Evolution and Landscape Science publications

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