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Type: Conference paper
Title: Mixing uniformity of emissions for point-wise measurements in exhaust ducts
Author: Kirch, T.
Evans, M.
Medwell, P.
Rapp, V.
Birzer, C.
Gadgil, A.
Citation: Proceedings of the 21st Australasian Fluid Mechanics Conference (AFMC 2018), 2018, pp.1-4
Publisher: Australian Fluid Mechanics Society
Issue Date: 2018
ISBN: 9780646597843
Conference Name: 21st Australasian Fluid Mechanics Conference (10 Dec 2018 - 13 Dec 2018 : Adelaide, Australia)
Statement of
T. Kirch, M. J. Evans, P. R. Medwell, V. H. Rapp, C. H. Birzer and A. J. Gadgil
Abstract: Exhaust hoods are commonly used to capture all emissions from stationary combustion systems that are open to the environment, such as residential heaters or stoves. For experimental purposes, emissions are sampled at one, or more, discrete locations downstream in the exhaust duct. Point-wise measurements in the duct are often taken with the assumption that the emissions are homogeneously distributed across the duct crosssection, because the flow is turbulent and therefore believed to be thoroughly mixed. However, the length of such systems is rarely sufficient to ensure fully-developed flow, and the actual homogeneity is seldom assessed. In the present work the mixing within the duct is investigated by simulating the emissions distribution within various hood and duct configurations. The simulations include a straight duct with and without baffles and two different exhaust hood configurations, namely at the Stove Testing Lab at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) and at the University of Adelaide that meet standard requirements. The air flow in the ducts was simulated using Reynoldsaveraged (RANS) turbulence modelling, with carbon monoxide (CO) as a representative combustion product, injected at three locations in the straight duct and two locations (centre and side) in the exhaust hoods. Simulations predict that, in isolation, neither a straight duct without baffles, nor a hood with a 90° elbow followed by a straight duct without baffles, provide sufficient mixing to achieve a near uniform distribution of CO at the sampling locations. However, simulations show that adequate mixing of dilution air and CO is achieved with baffles-induced flow detachment and recirculation, not from turbulent mixing in the straight section of the duct itself. The simulations also suggest that elbows, baffles, expansions or other geometrical features are needed to induce thorough mixing. For example, in the Stove Testing Lab at LBNL, flow disturbance is induced by an expansion into a larger diameter straight duct immediately downstream of the hood and the 90° elbow. Although these two systems demonstrate sufficient mixing of CO within the exhaust, the RANS simulations in this study suggest that other systems relying solely on mixing within a specified duct length (viz. 8–12 diameters) may not be sufficient.
Rights: Commencing with 19AFMC, the Society holds copyright to papers which appear in the Proceedings. Prior to that, copyright resides with authors of the papers.
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Mechanical Engineering conference papers

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