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Type: Journal article
Title: Surface-specific caries preventive effect of an intervention comprising fissure sealant, povidone-iodine and fluoride varnish in a remote Indigenous community in Australia
Author: Tadakamadla, S.K.
Lalloo, R.
Kroon, J.
Johnson, N.W.
Citation: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 2020; 17(6):2114-1-2114-10
Publisher: MDPI
Issue Date: 2020
ISSN: 1661-7827
Statement of
Santosh K. Tadakamadla , Ratilal Lalloo, Jeroen Kroon and Newell W. Johnson
Abstract: This study evaluates the effect of a topical intervention comprising of fissure sealant, povidone-iodine, and fluoride varnish in preventing caries on occlusal, approximal, and smooth surfaces. This three-year clinical trial was conducted in a remote Indigenous community of Australia. All schoolchildren (age range: 4-17) were invited to participate; those with parental consents to receive three-annual epidemiological examinations and interventions constituted the experimental group, while those with consents for only the epidemiological examination formed a comparison group. The intervention group received an annual application of fissure sealant, povidone-iodine and fluoride varnish for two consecutive years along with the restoration of any cavitated lesions, while the comparison group did not receive any intervention except for the usual care that included emergency treatment and restorations. Incipient and advanced caries were recorded in the permanent dentition while data on confounding variables were collected through questionnaires. Caries increment and progression were the outcome variables. A total of 408 children participated in the baseline examination, 208 finished the study. After adjusting for confounders, the prevented fraction (PF) on occlusal surfaces for advanced caries in the experimental group was 76.1% (mean difference- -0.35, 95% CI: -0.67-0.04), while the PF for progression from incipient to advanced caries was 100%(mean difference- -0.30, 95% CI: -0.52-0.09). The mean number of smooth surfaces that progressed from incipient to advanced caries in the comparison group was more than twice that of the experimental group, the mean difference was -0.25 (95% CI: -0.46--0.03) with a PF of 61%. The intervention was only effective in preventing advanced caries on occlusal surfaces and in halting the progression of caries on occlusal and smooth surfaces but not on approximal caries.
Keywords: Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people; dental caries; fluoride varnishes; pit and fissure sealants; topical fluoride; tooth surfaces
Rights: © 2020 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (
DOI: 10.3390/ijerph17062114
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